Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」歴史的証拠 研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Historical Evidence Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study and Substantiation of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology & Etymology of Concepts, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular


By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

Sitemap - All Menu Items List

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus


About this Research Project

Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions


The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative


The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax


To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Highlighted Illustrations


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names


Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     about 'Komusō', 'Fuke-shū', 'Suizen' et cetera



The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview






Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama



 •  INDIA - 1 web page

 •  CHINA - 2 web pages

 •  JAPAN - 8 web pages

 •  The WEST - 1 web page






Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern



ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550



1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple, Kyōto


1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise






ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ

     c. 1550 to c. 1628?



The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources


1550-1560: The Early Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City


1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters


1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-komosō


1627-1629: Takuan Sōhō, the Purple Robe Affair, the
     Concept of 'Mu-shin Mu-nen' and the Myōan sōsō-shū


1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo






ERA of the KOMUSŌ
     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1628? to 1871



The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1628? to c. 1750



1628?: A "Fuke Shakuhachi" related Murder Case
     in the Province of Tosa on the Island of Shikoku?


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau", and the
     Efficient Extinction of Catholic Christian Believers


c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy

1640?: Is a Very Early "Komusō Temple" built
     in Nagasaki on the Island of Kyūshū?


c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to a
     "Proto-Komusō" named Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "disciple" Kichiku


1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources


1659?: A Falsely Dated Myōan-ji Document Revealed

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources


1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Kyōto Myōan-ji


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early 'Honkyoku' History



1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Administrator
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about 'Sankyorei-fu',
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions



1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o. texts


The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia
     on 'Komosō' & 'Shakuhachi'







Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of "Fuke Shakuhachi" Narratives



1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-20th CENTURY

     1868-1945



1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection



From 1879 ... 1896-1914:
     The Koji ruien Historical Encyclopedia



1890: Higuchi Taizan - Teaching, the "Myōan Society",
     and the Taizan-ha Tradition of Shakuhachi Asceticism



1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Article
     'Fuke-shū ni tsuite', "About the Fuke Sect"


Early 20th Century Historians & Musicians, Japan:
     Kurihara Kōta, Uramoto Setchō,
     Nakatsuka Chikuzen, Tanikita Mujiku,
     Tomimori Kyozan, Ikeda Jūzan a.o.



1931-1932: Tokugawa kinreikō - A Source Collection
     of Tokugawa Period Prohibition Laws







2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN

     1945 ...



1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto


1950s: Yasuda Tenzan, Hirazumi Taizan & 'Suizen'

1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     'Gyō no ongaku': "Music of Asceticism"



Shakuhachi Historianship in Japan Today?:
     The "Traditionalists" and the "Truth Tellers"



The Legacy of the Late Myōan Taizan-ha Teachers
     Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin & Ozawa Seizan







3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...



1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages


Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators







Literature / References

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


1705: The Kōkoku Temple Ordination Platform
     and Kyōto Myōan-ji's Fake "Chief Monks" -
     In the Words of Makihara Ichirō, August 10, 2007

Makihara Ichirō, 牧原一郎, (aka Shin-Ichirō) is a "modern" 'Komusō' of the Myōan Tradition, however also rather critical regarding 'Komusō' history and practice as a whole.

Makihara Shin-Ichirou, Facebook, August 29, 2020

Makihara Shin-Ichirō. Source: Facebook, August 29, 2020


On August 10, 2007, Makihara-san published an important clarification and statement on his weblog titled "Ichirō, the Komusō, Talking about Shakuhachi and Ikkyū" - find link below, page down:


BACKGROUND:

Documents discovered and published by Nakatsuka Chikuzen, , October 3, 1887 - May 5, 1944, during the period 1936-1939 (reprinted in 1979), testify that, in 1703, the Kyōto Myōan Temple petitioned in formal writing addressed to the Kōkoku-ji Temple in Yura, Kii Province, present Wakayama Prefecture, to be granted status and privileges as its sub temple, or "child temple".

Kōkoku-ji was (and still is) a sub temple of the Myōshin-ji in Kyōto, head temple of the Myōshin Branch of Rinzai Zen Buddhism.


This is the title, the headline, of Makihara-san's article:

普化宗の日本開祖法灯国師も尺八を吹けなかった。

'Fuke-shū no Nihon kaiso Hottō Kokushi mo shakuhachi o fukenakatta.'

"Hottō Kokushi, Japanese Founder of the Fuke Sect, could not even play the Shakuhachi."


Here, first, follows Makihara-san's text in Japanese, then the English translation down beneath:

紀州(和歌山県)由良の興国寺。

その開祖法灯国師心地覚心(又は学心)が普化禅(虚無僧)の日本開祖という噂は、戦国時代末から江戸時代の初め頃に創られたようだ。

しかし、興国寺側にそういう史料は全く存在しない。

京都の虚無僧寺明暗寺から江戸時代の半ば、いきなり親寺になってほしいと 手紙が来た。

興国寺としては、無視していたのだが、「然るべきお金も毎年 納めますから」との再三の要請に、親寺を引き受ける。

すると興国寺の親寺、臨済宗妙心寺派の総本山、妙心寺からクレームがついた。 「明暗寺とやらがいつのまにか興国寺の末寺になっているが聞いてないぞ」という脅しである。

これに対して興国寺は、「寺が火事で焼けて記録は有りませんが、なんでも その昔ちょっとした関係があったようです」と苦しい弁明をしている。 明暗寺もいい加減だ。

毎年お金を納めるとか、「住職になる虚無僧はきち んと興国寺で剃髪して得度受戒を受けます」と約束したにもかかわらず、 ちっとも実行しない。

親寺-末寺の関係はうやむやのまま歳月が過ぎた。

明暗寺が、興国寺の末寺になろうとしたのには次のような理由があった。

幕府の浪人取締りとキリシタン禁令による宗門改めである。

虚無僧寺は元々浪人の溜り場である。

葬儀を執り行うこともせず、墓地もない。

- - - "



Here, the English Translation:

"The Kōkoku Temple in Yura, Wakayama Prefecture.

Seemingly, the common talk [also: "rumour", "gossip"] that the [temple's] founder Hottō Kokushi (aka Kakushin), was the "Japanese founder" of 'Fuke Zen' (‘komusō’) was created early in the Edo Era that followed after the "Warring States Period" [of the 16th century].

However, at the Kōkoku Temple, absolutely no such sources [to confirm it] exist.

Suddenly, [about] halfway* through the Edo Period, a letter arrived from the 'Komusō' Myōan Temple in Kyōto expressing a wish to become a sub temple [of Kōkoku-ji's].

As for Kōkoku-ji, although reluctantly, after several appeals [from Myōan-ji], the request for sub temple status and privileges was granted*, [however only] on the condition that "an annual amount of money (should) be paid" [by the Myōan Temple].

Thereupon, a "claim" [Jap.: クレーム] followed from the head temple of the Rinzai Myōshin-ji Branch, namely the Myōshin Temple [itself], inquiring in a threatening tone: "We have not at all heard about when Kōkoku-ji became a mother temple for the Myōan Temple!"

In reply to this, Kōkoku-ji responded, "The temple was devastated by fire so there are no records; anyhow, it seems that there was some [mutual] relation in its past," the problematic explanation goes.
"Myōan-ji is in a good state, though."

Every year, it pays money, and in spite that "Komusō who are to become ‘jū-shoku’, 住職, [head monks] are having their heads properly shaved at Kōkoku-ji, and ordained to enter the priesthood, nevertheless, there is nothing more involved."

As for mother-child temple relationships, times are hazily passing by ...

The reasons why Myōan-ji wanted to become a Kōkoku-ji sub temple are the following:

The Bakufu [Tokugawa Government] management and control of the masterless samurai [the 'rōnin'] and the Bureau of Religious Sects Inspection [Shūmon aratame-yaku] effectuation of the ban on Christianity and the prosecution of Christian converts.

Komusō temples were, by nature, gathering places for 'rōnin', masterless samurai.

Neither did they hold funeral ceremonies, nor were there [any] graveyards [at their temples].

- - - "

* The accurate time is the period 1703 to 1705.


Link to Makihara Ichirō's weblog with the article online

Internal link to Nakatsuka Chikuzen's chapter on the Kōkoku-ji/Myōan-ji relationship






To the front page To the top