Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」歴史的証拠 研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Historical Evidence Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study and Substantiation of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology & Etymology of Concepts, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular


By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

Sitemap - All Menu Items List

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus


About this Research Project

Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions


The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative


The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax


To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Highlighted Illustrations


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names


Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     about 'Komusō', 'Fuke-shū', 'Suizen' et cetera



The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview






Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama



 •  INDIA - 1 web page

 •  CHINA - 2 web pages

 •  JAPAN - 8 web pages

 •  The WEST - 1 web page






Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern



ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550



1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple, Kyōto


1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise






ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ

     c. 1550 to c. 1628?



The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources


1550-1560: The Early Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City


1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters


1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-komosō


1627-1629: Takuan Sōhō, the Purple Robe Affair, the
     Concept of 'Mu-shin Mu-nen' and the Myōan sōsō-shū


1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo






ERA of the KOMUSŌ
     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1628? to 1871



The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1628? to c. 1750



1628?: A "Fuke Shakuhachi" related Murder Case
     in the Province of Tosa on the Island of Shikoku?


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau", and the
     Efficient Extinction of Catholic Christian Believers


c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy

1640?: Is a Very Early "Komusō Temple" built
     in Nagasaki on the Island of Kyūshū?


c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to a
     "Proto-Komusō" named Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "disciple" Kichiku


1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources


1659?: A Falsely Dated Myōan-ji Document Revealed

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources


1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Kyōto Myōan-ji


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early 'Honkyoku' History



1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Administrator
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about 'Sankyorei-fu',
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions



1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o. texts


The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia
     on 'Komosō' & 'Shakuhachi'







Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of "Fuke Shakuhachi" Narratives



1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-20th CENTURY

     1868-1945



1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection



From 1879 ... 1896-1914:
     The Koji ruien Historical Encyclopedia



1890: Higuchi Taizan - Teaching, the "Myōan Society",
     and the Taizan-ha Tradition of Shakuhachi Asceticism



1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Article
     'Fuke-shū ni tsuite', "About the Fuke Sect"


Early 20th Century Historians & Musicians, Japan:
     Kurihara Kōta, Uramoto Setchō,
     Nakatsuka Chikuzen, Tanikita Mujiku,
     Tomimori Kyozan, Ikeda Jūzan a.o.



1931-1932: Tokugawa kinreikō - A Source Collection
     of Tokugawa Period Prohibition Laws







2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN

     1945 ...



1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto


1950s: Yasuda Tenzan, Hirazumi Taizan & 'Suizen'

1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     'Gyō no ongaku': "Music of Asceticism"



Shakuhachi Historianship in Japan Today?:
     The "Traditionalists" and the "Truth Tellers"



The Legacy of the Late Myōan Taizan-ha Teachers
     Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin & Ozawa Seizan







3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...



1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages


Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators







Literature / References

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


1627-1629: Takuan Sōhō - the Purple Robe Affair,
     the Concept of 'Mu-shin Mu-nen' and the Myōan sōsō-shū


紫衣事件 - SHIE-JIKEN

1627-1629 - The "PURPLE ROBE AFFAIR"

In 1627, the Bakufu countermanded Imperial order granting especially honorary "purple robes" (Jap.: shi-e) to high-ranking monks of Daitoku-ji, Myōshin-ji, and other temples in Kyōto.

In 1629, in anger over the Bakufu's interference in these matters, Emperor Gomizuno-o abdicated - and the renowned and influential abbot of the Zen temple Daitoku-ji, Takuan Sōhō, who had ardently protested, was exiled for some years to Northern Japan.


Well, who was Takuan Sōhō?


TAKUAN SŌHŌ, 1573-1645:

澤庵宗彭

Takuan Sōhō is being respected on the very same level as these other two really outstanding Rinzai Zen personalities: 15th century Ikkyū Sōjun and 18th century Hakuin Ekaku.

Not least, Takuan was the teacher and Zen mentor of the Rinzai Zen monk and abbot Isshi Bunshu, 1508-1645, whose letter of instruction to a - perhaps semi-legendary? - pseudo-komusō named Sandō Mugetsu represents the very earliest written testimony of the first emergence and rise of the komusō movement during the middle decades of the 17th century.
That essential document can be studied in quite much detail elsewhere on this website.

Truly, Takuan actually honored Isshi Bunshu in a handful of his poems composed in Kanbun/Chinese!

The characters Dream-Word & Waka poem - calligraphy by Takuan Sōhō

The characters Dream-Word & Waka poem - calligraphy by Takuan Sōhō
Nomura Art Museum, Kyōto


" - - - When the hands are clapped, the sound issues without a moment's deliberation.
The sound does not wait and think before it issues.
There is no mediacy here, one movement follows another without being interrupted by one's conscious mind.
If you are troubled and cogitate what to do, seeing the opponent about to strike you down, you give him room, that is, a happy chance for his deadly blow.
Let the defence follow the attack without a moment's interruption, and there will be no two separate movements to be known as attack and defence. - - - "

     The Zen abbot and samurai mentor Takuan Sōhō (1573-1645)
     instructing the samurai Yagyū Tajima-no-kami in the art of fencing.
     Early to mid-17th century. Trsl. by D.T. 2, Vol. III.



Three Sages - by Josetsu

Three Sages - suiboku-ga painting by Josetsu, fl. 1405–1423


"A Picture of Three Sages
The Taoist with a cap, the Confucian with his shoes,
and Sākyamuni with his kesa,
The appearance of each one is a grain of sand in the other's eye;
In a hundred affairs of human beings, there are a hundred uselesnesses,
With a single sound the mountain bird moves obliquely
to the sun in the west."

     Gozan verse by Takuan Sōhō in the Myōan sōsō-shū,
     'Anthology of (the Duality of) Light and Darkness',
     compiled by ten of his disciples.
     Mid-17th century. Trsl. by Dennis E. Lishka, 1976.


不動明王剣 - FUDŌŌ MYŌŌ KEN

THE SWORD of the IMMOVABLE WISDOM KING

Statue of Fudō Myōō

Statue of Fudō Myōō at Oku no In, Mt. Kōya
- the most prominent center of Shingon Buddhism in Japan

In his right hand, Fudō Myōō is holding the "Sword of Wisdom" that cuts through delusion and ignorance.




無心無念 - MU-SHIN MU-NEN
劔襌 - KENZEN

NO-MIND NO-THOUGHT - ZEN AND THE SWORD

" - - - Then if one is to achieve the level of immovable wisdom, practicing from the stage of the beginning mind, one must come to the situation of dropping back down to the level of returning to abide in the stage of the beginning mind.

This can be described in terms of your martial art. The beginning mind is not knowing anything about the postures of the body in handling a sword - it is the mind not stopping upon the body. An opponent will strike and there will not be any mind to take even the slightest notice. But at the stage of learning and practicing various things - bodily posture and the ways for holding the sword and how to proceed with the mind - as various matters are taught, the mind will stop upon various positions. If one attempts to strike at a person, one will be extremely restrained over this and that. Days will pile up and months and years accumulate as one follows one's practice, and subsequently bodily postures and the ways of holding the sword will all disappear within the mind. Only the knowing nothing and having practiced nothing at the beginning, is the manner of the mind. This is the state of mind that is identical at the beginning and upon completion [mastery].

If a person proceeds to count from one through ten, one and ten can be said to be right next to one another. In the [Sino-Japanese musical] scale if one proceeds in counting from the lowest note ichikotsu up through the highest note kamimu, the lowest first [note of the twelve-tone scale] is adjacent [identical] to the highest last [note of the preceding lower twelve-note scale]. The first - ichikotsu, the second - tangin, the third - hyōjō, the fourth - shōzetsu, the fifth - shimomu, the sixth - sōjō, the seventh - fushō, the eighth - ōshiki, the ninth - rankei, the tenth - banshiki, the eleventh - shinsen, and the twelfth - kamimu. Directly the highest and directly the lowest can be said to be similar.
In the Dharma of the Buddha as well, to the extent that a person looks upon the Buddha and the Dharma as one does who knows nothing about them, there is not the slightest pretension.

Therefore the ignorance and klesa of the beginning abiding ground and the final immovable wisdom are one - one's intellectual activity is lost and this refers to serenity in the level of the No-mind and Non-thought.
If one achieves the level of ultimacy, one's hands and feet and body will be thoroughly confident, and one's mind will be something at the stage of never being depressed at all. - - - "

     By Takuan Sōhō - quoted from the 'Fudōchi shinmyōroku',
     'Record of the Mysteries of Immovable Wisdom',
     compiled sometime after Takuan's death in 1645.
     Mid-17th century. Trsl. by Dennis E. Lishka, 1976.




You may study the complete 'Fudōchi shinmyōroku' text here - a direct link to the URL source is given after the text itself:

不動智神妙錄 日本東海寺澤庵宗彭撰

1、無明煩惱住地

無明者,晦暗不明,智慧為闇所述。

住地者,遲滯之境。

佛法修行可分五十二階位,若于任一階位,心為塵所滯,即稱住地。

住,止之意;止,心為塵所取。

就兵法而言,於眼劍來之剎那,若心有以劍攻防之意,則心為彼劍所滯,身心失念,即被斬殺,此稱心有所住。

若眼觀劍來,不分別思維,見劍則否,心無所住,亦無欲搶先機而反擊之意,無有少法,是心所住,入彼劍所及之距,狀若敗勢,逆取彼刃而潰敵手,恰如禪宗所雲:"還把槍頭倒刺人。"此與無刀流之旨,有同工之妙。

主客交鋒,此方彼方,己劍彼劍,拍子節奏,若於是中,心有所住,則行動緩頓,為彼所斬。若臨敵時有自身想,心則有住,故不應執著自身。

修行初始,心易受身形而緊繃,若心住於劍,則為劍所滯;若心欲搶先機,則為欲搶先機所滯,以要言之,若心有住,則失其念,佛法稱此遲滯之心為無明住地煩惱。


2、諸佛不動智 諸佛不動智,雖雲不動,非同草木,心遍十方,無有所住,是名不動。

佛法有不動明王尊者,右手持劍左持繩,利齒暴出目怒視,現憤怒相護持法,妨佛法者悉降服,自坐磐石妙不動,普遍十方一切剎,憤怒為相智為體,示現一切諸眾生。

一般凡夫於是中作恐布想,不敢礙佛,離悟近者,則知此為不動智之體現。

去一切迷闇,不動智即明,身現明王心不動。

故不動明王者,一心不動,無有住處,但住眾生心想。

若心有住,生種種分別,於分別中,心生黏滯,雖形能動,不能自在。

譬如臨敵十人,以一劍應之,心無所住,即舍即取,以寡敵眾,無有不足。

若心有住,於第一人或能取勝,于余諸敵,則心形黏滯。

觀千手觀音 尊者,雖雲千手持千寶,若於一手心有住,則餘九百九十九手,不能妙用妙自在。

因心無有所住故,千手能隨順自在,以是具妙智不動,能示一身具千手,隨順自在無有礙。

如人于林中,心若住一葉,則不見余葉,行者悟此道,則了千手尊。

無知凡夫者,於身具千手,終難生信解,而起諸誹謗。

今得聞少分,不應誹謗亦不執著,以法為本真實觀。

若僅觀外相,而無有心法,猶不應輕率,以慢心攻擊。

是故千手道,普門普示現,法門有種種,果位則不異。

自初學至不動智者,即回歸本心,兵法亦如是。

行者初習劍時,無招無勢,心亦無所住,若見劍來,亦不分別,心無所住,隨機而應。

習劍日久,得種種知見,或持劍之法,或心之置所,于臨敵手時,驚覺不自由。

漸學漸參訪,積聚見地心要,於身形劍法,皆回向初學無有知見時,概因地果位本一如故。

譬如算數,自一至十,于進位時,一十相鄰。

複觀音 樂,十二調:一壱越,二斷金,三平調,四勝絕,五下無,六雙調,七鳧鐘,八黃鐘,九蠻,十盤涉,十一神仙,十二上無。

最低壱越,最高上無,初音終音,緊密相鄰,故至高至低,至實至空,大智若愚,無華巧之飾。

以是義故,無明住地,不動妙智,本來一如,無心無念,動靜自在,不為煩惱所縛。

譬如田中稻草人形,其相離持弓箭,本無守護作物之心,而鳥獸見之逕自逃散。

世間眾道究竟,亦複如是。相雖種種,無住為要,無心無念,如稻草人形。

癡愚無智者,以無智慧故,不能顯鋒;具甚深智者,不露鋒芒;一知半解者,有聰無智,示其小慧,甚為可笑,今出家眾,狀似有道而作佛事,應以為恥。

後論理事修行,理者為尊,其究竟則不取萬物,唯舍一心。

然若無事之修行,縱得其理,身形不得自在。有事無理之修行,亦複如是。故理事修行,如車兩輪,不可缺一。


3、間不容髮 間不容髮者,兩掌相擊至有音聲,無一發可容之隙。掌擊之聲鳴,非經思量而後有。

于交鋒時,心住彼劍,便顯間隙;若彼劍與自形間,無一發可容,則彼劍己劍,本無差別。

此理與禪宗公案同,佛法以無住為要,呵遲滯之心,稱其為無明煩惱。


4、石火之機 此意與間不容髮同,非關快慢,以無住為要。

心若有住,則為人所伺;心欲速疾,則為欲速疾之念所滯。江口遊女,有詠歌雲:"浮生若夢,為求心止。"此實兵法之要。

若問:"如何是佛?""佛法心要?"

於彼聲將絕未絕之隆,或舉拳,或答之以"一枝梅花"、"庭前柏子樹"。

此答非關善惡,無思量處,貴心無住故。

若心無住,則不為六塵所滯,此不動心,若經思量,寓於文字,則美言藻飾,亦是煩惱分別。

石火之機,迅如閃電。譬如有人,呼彼名字,彼不經思量,諾應之,此非經思維之心,即不動智。

若聞名字,思維分別,則心為塵所動,是為凡夫。

法門雖三萬六千, 以明心為要。

未明心之人,心隨業轉。

世或有緣覺,自明其心,是事甚難。欲以文字,以明其心,是事亦難。

如人飲水,冷暖自知。世間學問,亦論是心,然理事有礙,不能一如。參佛悟道者,恰如兔角,行未深故。

不經一番寒徹骨,焉得梅花撲鼻香?


5、心之置所 心若置彼身,則為彼身所取;若置彼劍,則為彼劍所取;若置我劍,則為我劍所取,若置戒備,則戒備所取。

或曰:"心若置餘所,則為餘所取,故心置丹田,以應敵之機。"以此為極意,然於佛法,此非究竟。

心置丹田,為次第法,同孟子所雲"求放心"之階。

若心置丹田 而棄絕餘事,則心為棄絕餘事所取,不能自在。

或問:"若心置丹田,不能得自在,心應置何處?"

答曰:"心不應有住,若心住於此,則心失於彼。

若心無有住, 舍分別思,身心皆脫落,則全體在用,能遍於十方。"

故無有一處,是心所住,此為修行之要。


6、本心妄心 本心者,無住之心,全體在用。

妄心者,有住之心。本心若有所住,即是妄心。

若失本心,不能全用,故不失本心,是事為大。

本心如水,妄心如冰,水洗萬物,冰則不能。

冰水非異,若冰溶解,則具妙用。

心若有住,如水結冰,不能自在,去有住心,即為自由。


7、有心無心 有心者,心有所住,此為妄心。

無心者,雖雲不動,非同草木,無有所住,不為塵所動,不即一事,不離一事,全體在用。

心若有住,則不自由。譬如車輪。

若為固 定,則不能轉,心亦如是。

心住一處,則見不遍余色,聞不及餘聲,心有一物故。

若心無住,則能隨應,然若有除事之想,則心尚存一物。

故不思維,塵自離心,是 為無心。

行者修習漸久,火侯漸深,自得個中三昧。若心汲汲,反不能至。


8、水上葫蘆 若捺水上葫蘆,一碰即轉,無有所滯故。

行者之心,應如捺水上葫蘆,片刻不留。


9、應無所住而生其心 行一事時,若心有事相,即為斯事所滯。故應無所住而生其心。

於種種道藝,若心無住而行之,則堪稱達人。

因心有執,而有輪回,生死相伴。

譬如賞花,心生讚歎之時,應無所住。故古歌雲:"花不迷人人自迷。"

敬 者,主一無適。持劍揮劍,心住一所,不及旁務。

儒家事君,以敬為重,然於佛法,則非究竟,為次第法。

主一無適,不及旁務,戒慎恐懼,若以此境為常,日久反 不自由。

譬如為繩所縛之貓,捕雀不得自在。

若捕不捕,善調練之而去諸縛,則趨應無所住而生其心之趣。

行者之心,亦複如是。善以調練,去心散亂,能收能放,心無所住,自由無礙,方為究竟。

以劍而言,心不住彼,不住己,人空、我空、劍空,亦不住空。

昔鐮倉無學禪師于中國時,為元兵所捕,於斬首之際,作"電光影裡斬春風"偈。

無心之境,則電光迅雷之瞬,心無一念,人空我空一切空。

心無所住,能斬初春之 風。

于斬春風時,亦無劍、手之想。如是忘卻心事,方堪稱高人。

譬如彩女妙舞蹈,扇羽蝶形步蓮花,若彼心欲妙扇、步,則心有住有罣礙,如是有心之作為,不堪 極意為下乘。


10、 求放心 孟 子雲:"求其放心而已。"意為求散亂放逸之心回自身。

譬如雞犬逃散而尋回舍。心為身主,故莫放逸。然邵康節雲:"心要放。"意為心若有縛,則不自由。

心若放逸,則攝心回身,如蓮花出於淤泥,此為初學之階。

其上者,如水精於淤泥中,不以為意,不為泥染,來去隨意。

故孟子之求放心至究竟時,則為邵康節之心要 放。

中峰和尚亦雲:"具放心"、"具不退轉",即精進而行,無疲憊想。

身心性命,若不趨於上乘,則終於下乘 。


11、 急水上打毯子,念念不留 置毯於激流之上,潮來浪去,毯不滯一處,心之作用,亦複如是。


12、 前後際斷 前心不舍,今心殘留,則心有住,舍前心今心之隙,無有一處心停留,是為前後際斷。


13、 水焦上,火灑雲 都雲:"唯願武藏野,今莫火燎原。

以此蔽天草,護隱夫與我。"

誰解:"明日朝陽東方起,便是紫花淍零時。"

世間無常,生死如電,行者自重。



Link to the source of the text:

Xuite Blog Special #97: Takuan Sōhō's 'Fudōchi shinmyōroku', Tōkai-ji Edition, Edo/Tōkyō, Japan

Link to analytic article by Sato Rentarō, Hokkaidō University, 2003 (in Japanese):

"Three transcriptions of Ta-ku-an So-ho's Fu-do-chi-shin-myo-roku & one transcription of Tai-a-ki"

Bibliographical info, link:

Hokkaido University Collection of Scholarly and Academic Papers, Bulletin 103, 2001



明暗雙雙集

Takuan's three poems about Fuke Zenji in the 'Myōan sōsō-shū' poetry anthology

Takuan's "Poetry Anthology of Light & Darkness Duality" really deserves more attention. Here you find Takuan's poems about all kinds of matters related to Rinzai Zen matters in particular. These three poems about Fuke Zenji will be tranlated and discussed the soonest possible:

Fuke poem by Takuan

Fuke poem by Takuan

Fuke poem by Takuan

Three poems about Fuke Zenji by Takuan Sōhō.

Reference:

Takuan Sōhō: Takuan Oshō zenshū. Vol. 1
     Republished by the Takuan Oshō zenshū Publication Society,
     Tankobon Hardcover, November, 2001.




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