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About this Research Project
Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions
The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
& the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
- the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
& the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative
The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax
To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?
1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
& the Temple Patron Household System
Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
and the Realization of The Non-Dual
- Highlighted Quotations
Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names
Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends
Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
about 'Komusō', 'Fuke-shū', 'Suizen' et cetera
The Source Collections
The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview
Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
A Chronological Panorama
• INDIA - 1 web page
• CHINA - 2 web pages
• JAPAN - 8 web pages
• The WEST - 1 web page
Research Cases of Particular Significance,
Real Importance & Special Concern
ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"
c. 1450 to c. 1550
1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami
1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple, Kyōto
1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls
1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise
ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ
c. 1550 to c. 1628?
The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources
1550-1560: The Early Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries
1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City
1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters
1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
with a Wandering Fuke-komosō
1627-1629: Takuan Sōhō, the Purple Robe Affair, the
Concept of 'Mu-shin Mu-nen' and the Myōan sōsō-shū
1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo
ERA of the KOMUSŌ
"Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"
c. 1628? to 1871
The Early Komusō-related Texts
- from c. 1628? to c. 1750
1628?: A "Fuke Shakuhachi" related Murder Case
in the Province of Tosa on the Island of Shikoku?
1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
the National "Sects Inspection Bureau", and the
Efficient Extinction of Catholic Christian Believers
c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2"
1640?: Is a Very Early "Komusō Temple" built
in Nagasaki on the Island of Kyūshū?
c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document
1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to a
"Proto-Komusō" named Sandō Mugetsu
1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
"The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "disciple" Kichiku
1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy
The Kyōto/Kansai Sources
1659?: A Falsely Dated Myōan-ji Document Revealed
1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise
c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji
The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources
1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules
1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678
1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules
c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
& Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Kyōto Myōan-ji
1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples
1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship
1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum
1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
& Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum
1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
and Early 'Honkyoku' History
1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Administrator
Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about 'Sankyorei-fu',
the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"
1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
The Many Different All Fabricated Versions
1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō
1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book
1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book
1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o. texts
The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia
on 'Komosō' & 'Shakuhachi'
Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
of "Fuke Shakuhachi" Narratives
1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-20th CENTURY
1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
From 1879 ... 1896-1914:
The Koji ruien Historical Encyclopedia
1890: Higuchi Taizan - Teaching, the "Myōan Society",
and the Taizan-ha Tradition of Shakuhachi Asceticism
1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Article
'Fuke-shū ni tsuite', "About the Fuke Sect"
Early 20th Century Historians & Musicians, Japan:
Kurihara Kōta, Uramoto Setchō,
Nakatsuka Chikuzen, Tanikita Mujiku,
Tomimori Kyozan, Ikeda Jūzan a.o.
1931-1932: Tokugawa kinreikō - A Source Collection
of Tokugawa Period Prohibition Laws
2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN
1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto
1950s: Yasuda Tenzan, Hirazumi Taizan & 'Suizen'
1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
'Gyō no ongaku': "Music of Asceticism"
Shakuhachi Historianship in Japan Today?:
The "Traditionalists" and the "Truth Tellers"
The Legacy of the Late Myōan Taizan-ha Teachers
Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin & Ozawa Seizan
3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST
1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
Written and Published in Western Languages
Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
published in the West / Outside of Japan
including the Internet / WWW
- The Translators
Literature / References
Profile / Bio / CV
About this Research Project
By Torsten Olafsson
Especially warm thanks to:
Yuki Pallis & Tim Pallis, Kyōto, Japan/Copenhagen, Denmark -
Kirsten Refsing, Copenhagen, Denmark -
Joan Hornby, The National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen -
Taguchi Noriko & Taguchi Shigeo, Copenhagen, Denmark/Japan -
Sato Nakazato, calligrapher, Japan -
Kiku Day, The European Shakuhachi Society, Denmark/London, Great Britain/Japan -
Kosuge Daisetsu, Komusō Kenkyūkai c/o Hosshin-ji, Tōkyō, Japan -
Martina Binnig, Köln, Germany -
Kishi Kiyokazu, Shakuhachi suisō kenkyūkai, Japan -
Ronald Nelson, President of ISS/The International Shakuhachi Society, USA -
Monty H. Levenson, Tai Hei Shakuhachi, Willits, California, USA
for contributing to the (either/or) source materials search and bibliopgraphy, editing, illustrating, translating, interpreting, continued improvement and further completion
of this "About this Research Project" webpage as well as other of this sites' webpages.
The studies of mine that are underlying these research webpages began in early September, 1968:
First Chinese Studies: Chinese Language, Culture & Art; next, from 1974: Japanese Studies: Language & Culture -
while at that time being enrolled as a graduate research student at the Eastasian Institute, University of Copenhagen in Denmark.
The fundamental approach and goal is that of an uncompromisingly critical and unbiased investigation of all the extant,
available original written and pictorial Japanese sources of shakuhachi
尺八 history and ideology, primarily focusing on the period from approximately 1450 through around 1750.
Well, then - I do admit to the truth: That is really an ambitious project, isn't it?
How could that come true at all, only possibly?
When, back in 1968, I began to study Chinese at the Copenhagen University in Denmark,
I couldn't know that half a century later I would be managing a website like the present,
with all the discipline and diligence that actually demands of one single person, essentially working all alone, on his own, like I do - fully independently.
A completely non-profit research project it is indeed - con amore ...
In the Chinese language, culture & arts program, I soon found myself sincerely enjoying to learn a completely different language (and way of thinking and viewing the world, our planet Earth) from what I so far knew,
and learn about a culture of such an immense importance in human history.
Learning the modern Chinese linguage was one sort of challenge - studying Classical Chinese literature such as excerpts from the Confucian Analects, Taoist teachings and texts about Classical Chinese music theory -
that was simply a mind-blowing experience. Chinese archaeology, arts, philosophy, religion, calligraphy - and painting bamboo with but a few almost dry brush strokes on paper ...
However, becoming better acquainted and musically so fascinated with the Japanese shakuhachi bamboo flute, I had to change course and devote myself to the study of Japan,
the geography, culture, society, language, arts, music and thought systems - in all that outspoken diversity and complexity.
At the Eastasian Institute in the very center of Copenhagen we read, analyzed, translated - and were eventually tested and examined in -
the native literature from the very beginnings to recent times, for example:
'Kojiki', 'Nihon shoki', 'Taketori monogatori'; the poetry of 'Manyōshū' and other classical poetry anthologies such as 'Kokin wakashū' and 'Shin kokin wakashū';
the Heian court lady diaries 'Murasaki Shikibu Nikki' and 'Genji monogatari'; the warrior epic 'Heike monogatari' and writings with strong underlying Buddhist inspiration like 'Hōjōki' and 'Tsurezuregusa'.
Not to forget the 15th century masterpieces of linked verse, known as renga - first of all the 'Minase sangin hyakuin' by the poets Sōchō, Sōgi & Shōhaku, dated 1488.
Edo Period must read material was for instance the neo-confucian writers Dazai Shundai and Ogyū Sorai (the latter writing in Chinese style kambun); the much famed novel writer Ihara Saikaku
and the certainly even more celebrated haiku poet Bashō.
Entering the post-Tokugawa times after 1868, the most prominent authors investigated were Akutagawa Ryūnosuke, Natsume Sōseki and - Mishima Yukio.
Besides, on top of all this, dozens and more dozens of pages about Japanese music and shakuhachi history were eagerly but painstakingly studied, devotedly digested and warmly appreciated.
I keep feeling sincerely grateful towards my many gifted supportive teachers and academic bystanders, be they professors, bright scholars and assistant professors back then,
in those utterly inspiring bygone days at the university:
Kirsten Refsing, Esperanza Ramirez Christensen, Mette Laderierre, Schuyler van R. Cammann,
Olof G. Lidin, Mette Laderierre, Kirsten Rønbøl, Birthe Ahrendrup, Setsuko Bergholdt,
Nina Fønss, Chi-yun Eskelund, Professor Chang, Else Glahn, Søren Egerod,
Bo Gyllensvärd and Göran Malmqvist.
Japanologist, translator & novel writer, Dr. Phil., Professor Emerita,
former Hong Kong University professor, retired Copenhagen University Dean.
Longtime internationally renowned Ainu Language researcher and expert.
Received the prestigious Order of Dannebrog on November 18, 2011.
Photo: Kirsten Refsing speaking and lecturing at Hokkaidō: University, N. Japan.
Among my many gifted high school teachers first of all the late Mr. Leif Bruun-Andersen who was responsible for the music program at Christianshavns Gymnasium during the mid- and late 1960s.
My so very inspiring, fantastic shakuhachi teachers in Japan:
Ozawa Seizan and Yokoyama Katsuya.
Not to forget Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin who introduced and recommended me to Ozawa Seizan sensei in 1977.
Fellow students and university friends that I shall never ever forget: Joan Hornby,
Erik Fæster Olesen, Elisabeth Grønvald, Karen E. Bjerre,
Finn Chemnitz, Kari-Nina Pedersen, Søren M. Chr. Bisgaard, Kjeld Erik Brødsgaard, Inga-Lil Hansson & Ole & Ki Aabenhus.
Furthermore, persons - be they additional great friends, musician colleagues, shakuhachi enthusiasts, Japan society committee colleagues, specialists & mentors alike - for their kind support, appreciation, declared respect, inspiration, and valuable various assistances -
for convenience here listed in the alphabetical order of their family names:
Marianne Alo, Jørgen Bennick, Martina Binnig, Hans Otto Bisgaard, Lea Stine Brich, Christian Briggs, Peder Bundgaard, Mary Lu Brandwein, Torben Dan Christensen, Kiku Day, Dean Del Bene, Geoff Duckworth, Karen Ejersbo Iversen, Frank Erdmann Fürst, Tom Frederiksen, Johnnie Gellett, Gert Günther, Morten Hansen, Douglas Hernandez, Philip Horan, Jytte Hovgaard, Jan Hurtigkarl, Svend M. Hvass, Mads Mazanti Jensen, Birgit Jenvold, Alxander Kabanov, Kakehi Atsuko, Vibeke Kamp, Kishi Kiyokazu, Kim Kyung-Hee, Palle Kjærulff-Schmidt, Jem Klein, Kosuge Daisetsu, Jørgen Krarup Edl, Lilli Krarup Edl, Kenneth Larsen, Stefan Lenz, Louise Lerche-Lerchenborg, Mei Levenson, Monty H. Levenson, Gunvor Lidin, Gitte Lund, Jørgen Lund, William P. Malm, Vlastislav Matousek, Dan E. Mayers, Kim Menzer, Chris Moran, Ron Nelson, Jerome Neu, Nancy Neukirch, John Høyer Nielsen, Agar Kyosui Noiri, Anders Nordin, Agnete Nyboe Andersen, Hanne Nøhr, Maria Olafsson, Marianne Olafsson, David Palanquez, Tim Pallis, Yuki Pallis, Laurence E.R. Picken, Graham Ranft, Lene Regius, Sakaguchi Yoshie, Sato Nakazato, David Sawyer, Yōkō Schandorff, Mikkel Scharff, Simura Satosi, Gert Smedegaard, Kasper Søeborg, Søren Sørensen, Taguchi Noriko, Taguchi Shigeo, Frédérique Thouvenot, Steen Toft Andersen, Tsukitani Tsuneko, Walther Ulrich, José Vargas, Uwe Walter, Per Weiss, Marco Flemming Widding, Per Wium, Yamakawa Sōkyū, Palle Aarslev ...
Not least, the sincerest thanks to my (younger) brother Finn Olafsson who, in Spring 1983, produced the one and only solo shakuhachi LP album of mine:
"Standing Waves - Zen Shakuhachi Meditations", the very first music album that Finn and I created and released together on our Olafssongs Music Publishing record label in that same year.
The album was kindly and expertly recorded in Sweet Silence Studios, Copenhagen - engineered by worldwide renowned recording engineer & music producer Flemming Rasmussen. Thank you, both!
Finn Olafsson and Flemming Rasmussen in present-day Sweet Silence Studios
in Helsingør/Elsinore, town of the Kronborg Castle and Shakespeare's Prince Hamlet,
North Sealand, Denmark
Kronborg, Spring 2017 - Photo: Torsten Olafsson
Finally, most importantly, indeed: The warmest of cordial thanks to my dear Japanese hosts in Kyōto in 1977-78, the Tamura Family, with whom I am again in so very friendly contact.
Tamura Yoshiko and Tamura Shōzō at Sanzen-in, NE Kyoto, Spring 1977
Tamura Yoshiko: Japanese sumi-e ink painting of Lake Biwa - 2016
Please do note that you are really not reading a printed book here - this is just a WWW Internet based "E-publication".
It keeps growing ever steadily as I can't help but finding yet more new "goodies" to be shared with you ...
So utterly different from a traditional old-fashioned printed book, though:
It disappears by the very moment you turn off the electrical power supply ...
To be continued, deepened and elaborated upon ...
Japanese standard reference books about the shakuhachi, and other ...