「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

An Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology & Etymology of Concepts, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular

By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark



Sitemap - All Menu Items List

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus

About this Research Project

Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions

The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative

The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax

To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?

Highlighted Illustrations

1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System

Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations

Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names

Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     about 'Komusō', 'Fuke-shū', 'Suizen' et cetera

The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview

Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama

 •  INDIA - 1 web page

 •  CHINA - 2 web pages

 •  JAPAN - 8 web pages

 •  The WEST - 1 web page

Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern

ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550

1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple, Kyōto

1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls

1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise


     c. 1550 to c. 1628?

The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources

1550-1560: The Early Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries

1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City

1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters

1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-komosō

1627-1629: Takuan Sōhō, the Purple Robe Affair, the
     Concept of 'Mu-shin Mu-nen' and the Myōan sōsō-shū

1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo

     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1628? to 1871

The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1628? to c. 1750

1628?: A "Fuke Shakuhachi" related Murder Case
     in the Province of Tosa on the Island of Shikoku?

1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau", and the
     Efficient Extinction of Catholic Christian Believers

c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy

1640?: Is a Very Early "Komusō Temple" built
     in Nagasaki on the Island of Kyūshū?

c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to a
     "Proto-Komusō" named Sandō Mugetsu

1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "disciple" Kichiku

1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy

The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

1659?: A Falsely Dated Myōan-ji Document Revealed

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji

The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678

1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Kyōto Myōan-ji

1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples

1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship

1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early 'Honkyoku' History

1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Administrator
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about 'Sankyorei-fu',
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"

1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions

1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō

1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book

1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o. texts

The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia
     on 'Komosō' & 'Shakuhachi'

Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of "Fuke Shakuhachi" Narratives

1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-20th CENTURY


1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection

From 1879 ... 1896-1914:
     The Koji ruien Historical Encyclopedia

1890: Higuchi Taizan - Teaching, the "Myōan Society",
     and the Taizan-ha Tradition of Shakuhachi Asceticism

1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Article
     'Fuke-shū ni tsuite', "About the Fuke Sect"

Early 20th Century Historians & Musicians, Japan:
     Kurihara Kōta, Uramoto Setchō,
     Nakatsuka Chikuzen, Tanikita Mujiku,
     Tomimori Kyozan, Ikeda Jūzan a.o.

1931-1932: Tokugawa kinreikō - A Source Collection
     of Tokugawa Period Prohibition Laws


     1945 ...

1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto

1950s: Yasuda Tenzan, Hirazumi Taizan & 'Suizen'

1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     'Gyō no ongaku': "Music of Asceticism"

Shakuhachi Historianship in Japan Today?:
     The "Traditionalists" and the "Truth Tellers"

The Legacy of the Late Myōan Taizan-ha Teachers
     Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin & Ozawa Seizan

3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...

1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages

Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators

Literature / References


Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info

Mu-ku-teki Suizen

No-hole Flute Blowing Meditation
Calligraphy signed by Myōan Taizan
In T.O.'s collection


The Duality of the Clear
and the Obscure
By Tanikita Muchiku, 1875-1957


Calligraphy by Ryōkan
18th or early 19th century
(shown in negative)


JAPAN 8 • 1883 ...

2600 BCE - 800 CE
China 1
6000 BCE - 500 CE
China 2
500 CE ...
Japan 1
600 - 1233
Japan 2
1233 - 1477
Japan 3
1477 - 1560
Japan 4
1560 - 1614
Japan 5
1614 - 1664
Japan 6
1664 - 1767
Japan 7
1767 - 1883
Japan 8
1883 ...
The West
1298 ...

A list of references is included at page bottom.
A complete bibliography can be found on this separate webpage: "Literature".

Cordial thanks to Taguchi Shigeo (excellent interpreter & translator) & Kirsten Refsing (PhD, Professor Emerita), Denmark, for assisting me with the translation and interpretation of essential texts presented on this webpage, related to the Myōan Taizan-ha tradition of "Ascetic Shakuhachi Practice".


1883: The 1871 government ban on religious mendicancy is lifted.



In July, 1890 (Meiji 23), a new shakuhachi society, the Myōan kyōkai, 明暗教会, was established - with the purpose of the preservation and continued practice of original Komusō Shakuhachi music.
A comprehensive repertory of carefully chosen shakuhachi pieces, the socalled honkyoku, had been compiled by Higuchi Taizan, 1856-1914, who became the first head instructor of a new line of ascetic shakuhachi practice, the Myōan Taizan-ha, 明暗対山派,

According to Machida Kashō, 1956, p. 375, however, the information is given somewhat differently,

"The Fuke sect had been outlawed in 1871, and the following year the regimen of the mendicant had been proscribed. This led to great difficulties in the propagation of Buddhism, however, and in 1878 the various sects jointly petitioned the government for permission to revive mendicancy.

In 1881 the request was granted by the Ministry of the Interior.

In 1883 the Meian Kyōkai (Meian Society) was founded with Prince Kujō as its head, its purpose being to preserve the komusō system, even if The Fuke Sect itself could not be revived. - - - "

明暗寺三十五世 樋口対山


Higuchi Taizan

Higuchi Taizan - 1856-1914

Chōshi, calligraphed by Higuchi Taizan

Chōshi, calligraphed by Higuchi Taizan
A treasure of the Higuchi Family
In: Ikeda Juzan shū. Taizan-fu shūi, 1985, p. 62


中尾都山 - 都山流

NAKAO TOZAN founds the Tozan-ryū of shakuhachi in Ōsaka

Nakao Tozan, 1876-1956

Nakao Tozan, 1876-1956

Source: Nakao Tozan



Okabe Village: Two komusō walking in the Snow

Okabe Village: Two komusō walking in the Snow
Tanzaku print, 1930s, by Takahashi Shōtei, 1871-1945
Sources: &

明暗寺三十七世 谷北無竹


Tanikita Muchiku

Tanikita Muchiku - 1878-1957


Myōan sōbō

"Bright-Dark Pair Forget"

Calligraphy in honkyoku ori-hon dated 1941? (Shōwa 16?)
by Tanikita Rōan Muchiku, 1878-1957
Reproduced in Inagaki, 1981

Ch#0333; tan haku-un kō - sh#0333; tetsu heki tan shin



"The Music drinks of the Eminence of White Clouds;
The Voice permeates the Profundity of Blue Water in the Deep"

Chinese poem in honkyoku ori-hon dated 1941? (Shōwa 16?)
by Tanikita Rōan Muchiku, 1878-1957
in praise of a famous poem by Fuke Zenji's
master Banzan Hōshaku, 720-814
Reproduced in Inagaki, 1981
Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson, 2010


1950: In March, "The Religious Institution Temple of Light and Darkness of the True Fuke Sect", Shūkyō-hōjin Fuke Shōshū Myōan-ji, is established and opened in the Zen'ei-in, a small subtemple of Tōfuku-ji, SE Kyōto, as the official head temple of all Komusō/Fuke Shakuhachi branches in Japan.

Kyōto Myōan-ji, 1977

The gate of Kyōto Myōan-ji, the signboard reading
"Myōan-ji - Fundamental Spiritual Training Center for the Shakuhachi".
Photo by Torsten Olafsson, 1977



"Blowing a Flute Non-dualistic Contemplation Practice"

This very new term was most certainly invented and introduced into modern ascetic shakuhachi ideology by Yasuda Tenzan, 安田天山, 1909-1994, while he was acting as the first head monk of the modern Myōan Temple during the years 1950 to 1953.

On Saturday August 8, 2009, US citizen Dean Seicho Delbene posted this illustration on his Myoan Shakuhachi Blogspot Website:

Tomimori Kyozan's Statement regarding the origin of the terms suizen/suishouzen,nodate

Tomimori Kyozan's Statement regarding the origin of the terms suizen/suishouzen, no date


Probably beginning in the early 1950s, various Suizen gyōka shō, 吹禅行化証, or "Ascetic Shakuhachi Travel Authorization Certificates", were issued by the Myōan Temple, replacing the former Komusō gyōka shō 虚無僧行化証, of the latter part of the Edo Period.

Suizen gyōka seiganbun

'Suizen gyōka seiganbun', 吹禅行化誓願文,
"Ascetic Shakuhachi Written Travel Oath." Precise date unknown.

The source of the above given information, it should be noted, is the website of the Kyōto Myōan Temple named Myōan dōshukai, 明暗導主会: Myōan dōshukai



Uramoto Setchō, 1891-1965

Uramoto Setchō, 1891-1965
Link to source: Uramoto Setchō commemoration webpage

普化尺八: 行 音楽



尺八は心で吹くな 手で吹くな
寒夜に霜の降るごとく吹け -

混沌として未分、只精進に因 って
s のみ向上する。


混沌未分ではなくして病的分離の症状に過ぐ ぎぬ。」

"Fuke Shakuhachi was (is) the music of asceticism [gyō no ongaku].

Playing shakuhachi, you blow with your mind, blow with your fingers, like when frost comes down in the shivering cold night.

As a whole, it is "Self" / "Nature" [shizen] without any deliberate consciousness.
Not to mention, let alone any technique, nor finesse [gikō].

Being unresolved in confusion, simply practicing asceticism will nothing but bring about elevation [alt.: improvement, advancement, progress].

Supposingly, when there are people who say that there are also human beings to whom the shakuhachi is only "delicious" [umai] ... that is to detach human beings from the shakuhachi.

Doing away with unresolved confusion, that brings an end to the symptoms of abnormal detachment."

     Quotation from Uramoto Setchō's essay 'Zen mondō to satori.'
     Essay originally published by Shunjūsha, 1960, 12 pages.
     Source of quotation and info: Kikkawa Eishi, 1975, pp. 55-56.
     Uramoto Setchō's essay, 12 pages, originally published by Shunjūsha, 1960.
     Quotation translated by Torsten Olafsson, 2018.


Ikeda Juzan

Ikeda Juzan - 1888-1976
In: Ikeda Juzan shū, 1985


Ikeda Juzan sumi-e, 1960: Shakuhachi and 'Ichion jōbutsu'

Shakuhachi and 'Ichion jōbutsu' calligraphy
Sumi-e dated 1960 (Shōwa 35) by Ikeda Juzan, 1888-1976,
a prominent student of Higuchi Taizan
Reproduced in Ikeda Juzan shū, 1985


Ikeda Juzan sumi-e, 1960: Shakuhachi and 'Ichion jōbutsu'

Famous "Suizen" monument erected in June, 1966, at the Myōan Temple in Kyōto.
Photo courtesy of historian Yuki Tanaka at

Kyōto Myōan-ji, 1977

Kyōto Myōan-ji, Main Hall completed in 1969
Photo by Torsten Olafsson, 1977


"The Shakuhachi of Self-cultivation and Self-discipline"

明暗寺四十世 芳村普庵宗心


Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin

Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin - 1904-1998





心を素直に持って, 我の心による



"Myōan Shakuhachi can not be likened to the playing of an ordinary wind instrument.
Such thing as a fixed way of playing does not exist.
What I can say is, plainly, that I am only concerned with directing my blowing towards my own Self - with a gentle mind."

It is my opinion that people who trifle with skill of playing and "play well" - who exercise exceedingly intending to impress the listener and the like - that way of blowing with an egocentric mind represents the worst of human attitudes (that I can think of).

There are people who can produce changing sounds depending on technical skill, but as for the shakuhachi practice of the Myōan Temple,
I believe that the ideal way of Zen Shakuhachi is to let one's true Mind listen to the sounds and to cultivate one's own Self in accordance with those sounds.

I can not easily express this in words but to practice the shakuhachi of Zen Shakuhachi is indeed a way of mental training and self-cultivation that is practiced with an open and humble mind and does not develop into (mere) technical skill with a selfish attitude.

The accumulation of this daily practice will, eventually, bring about the realization of the true Self of one's Human Nature.

It is, in any case, wrong to act against Nature.
I am devoting myself every day to follow Nature and not to be mistaken about the Way."

     Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin, Myōan-ji, August 9, 1977.
     Private correspondance. Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson

明暗雙雙 - MYŌAN SŌSŌ - "The Myōan Pair"
法器 - HŌKI - "Instrument of the Buddhist Law"



Ozawa Seizan, letter of recommendation, 1978

Detail of a letter of recommendation for T.O.
written by Ozawa Seizan in Spring, 1978
See translation below ...

尺八お法器として、明暗双々円通無碍の実力を修得じ、虚に帰して、精神の修養を高めんとするしので有る。 これを吹禅と稱する。

"Myōan Shakuhachi is related to the Fuke Sect of Shakuhachi and it has as its purpose to employ the ancient Japanese shakuhachi flute as a Dharma instrument [hō-ki] in order that one understands the Ultimately Adual Nature of the 'Clear' and the 'Un-clear' [Myō-An] and experiences the Essence of Non-substantiality [kyo] through self-cultivation.
This practice is called Suizen."

     By Ozawa Seizan, 1939-2012, Myōan-ji, 1978, in a letter
     of recommendation to the author. Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson.

Ozawa Seizan, 1978

Ozawa Seizan Sensei, 1939-2012 - Spring, 1978

Not later than Early Spring, 1978

Mu-ku-teki Suizen      Myōan Taizan signature & seal

"No Hole Flute - Blow Ascetic Non-dual(istic) Practice"

Calligraphy signed 'Myōan Taizan', the 2nd present times
Myōan Temple chief monk Hirazumi Taizan, 平住台山, (a.k.a. Myōan Taizan),
inaugurated in 1952, died in 1984 (Shōwa 59).

Signature and stamps deciphered by Kosuge Daisetsu (Komusō kenkyūkai/Hosshin-ji),
and Sato Nakazato, Japan. A present to Torsten Olafsson
given by his teacher Ozawa Seizan in Summer, 1978


The Tantric symbol 'A' & 'Suizen godo'

Opening pages of a honkyoku folding book (ori-hon)
written by Matsumoto Kyozan, 松本虚三, dated 1985.

To the right: 'Suizen godō':
"Suizen Way of Buddhist Enlightenment".

To the left the Sanskrit seed syllable 'A' (Jap.: 'A')
of the Buddha Mahāvairocana, or
Dainichi Nyorai, residing in the center of the
Taizō-kai (Womb Realm) mandala (Skt.: Garbhadātu)
of Japanese Tantric Buddhism (Shingon)
Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson

Link to the next page: The West
Link to the previous page: Japan 7 • 1767-1883

List of references:

Christopher Blasdel & Kamisangō Yūkō:
     The Shakuhachi. A Manual for Learning.
     Ongaku no Tomo-sha, Tokyo, 1988, 2008.
     Available at
Andreas Gutzwiller: Die Shakuhachi der Kinko-Schule.
     Bärenreiter - Kassel, Basel, London, 1983.
Ikeda Juzan shū. Taizan-fu shūi. Tokyo, 1985.
Inagaki Ihaku, Izui Seizan & Takahashi Ryochiku, editors:
      Myōan Sanjūnana-sei Tanikita Muchiku-shū.
      Taizan-fu shūi. Tanikita Renzō, Kyoto, 1981.
Kikkawa Eishi: 'Hyōtan namazu to shakuhachi. Shakuhachi ni miru bigaku.'
     In: Kikan hōgaku 5, pp. 52-59, Tokyo, 1975.
Kitahara Ikuya, Masumoto Misao & Matsuda Akira:
     The Encyclopedia of Musical Instruments: The Shakuhachi.
     Ongakusha, Tokyo, 1990.
Kiyū Shōran. Comp. by Kitamura Nobuyo (1784-1856), first publ. in 1830.
     Reprint by Seikōkan Shuppanbu, Tokyo, 1933.
Koji Ruien. Ruien Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1896-1914. Reduced size reprint ed.
     by Jungū Shichō, Tokyo, 1927-1930. Latest edition: Yoshikawa
     Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1967-1971. Vol. 9: Section on Religion.
     Vols. 32 & 35: Section on Music.
Kondō Ichitarō & Charles S. Terry: The Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
     by Hokusai. Heibonsha, Tokyo, 1968.
Kurihara Kōta: Shakuhachi shikō. Chikuyūsha, Tokyo, 1918, 1975.
Riley Kelly Lee: Yearning for the Bell: A Study of
     Transmission in the Shakuhachi Honkyoku Tradition.
     PhD thesis, Univerity of Sidney, 1992.
     Available online at:
Dennis Eugene Lishka: Buddhist Wisdom and Its Expression as Art:
     The Dharma of the Zen Master Takuan.
     Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
     University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1976. Purchasable at:
     UMI Dissertation Services - Cat. no.: 7708798.
Tomohiro Matsuda, ed., et al.:
     A Dictionary of Buddhist Terms and Concepts.
     Nichiren Shoshu International Center, Tokyo, 1983.
Daigan Matsunaga & Alicia Matsunaga: Foundation of Japanese
     Buddhism. Vol. I: The Aristocratic Age. Vol. II: The Mass Move-
     ment. Buddhist Books International, Los Angeles, Tokyo, 1974, 1976.
Michel Mohr: 'Imagining Indian Zen: Tōrei's Commentary on the
     Ta-mo-to-lo ch'an ching and the Rediscovery of
     Early Meditation Techniques during the Tokugawa Era.'
     In: Steven Heine & Dale S. Wright, eds.: Zen Classics.
     Formative Texts in the History of Zen Buddhism.
     Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 2006.
Nakatsuka Chikuzen: Kinko-ryū Shakuhachi Shikan.
     Nihon Ongaku-sha, Tokyo, 1979.
Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto monogatari.
     Chūō Kōronsha,Tokyo, 1971, 1976.
Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto no kenkyū.
     Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1982.
Nishiyama Matsunosuke: 'Komusō no ura-omote'.
     In: Kikan hōgaku 5, Ongaku no Tomo-sha, Tokyo, 1975, pp. 26-30.
Torsten Olafsson: Kaidō Honsoku, 1628: The Komosō's Fuke
     Shakuhachi Credo. On Early 17th Century Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology. Publ. by Tai Hei Shakuhachi, California, 2003.
     Includes a CD-ROM with the author's complete M.A. thesis on
     the same subject, University of Copenhagen, 1987.
     Purchasable at
James H. Sanford: 'Shakuhachi Zen. The Fukeshū and Komusō.'
     In: Monumenta Nipponica XXXII, 4. Sophia University, Tokyo, 1977.
Shibayama Zenkei: A Flower Does Not Talk.
     Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc. 1970, 1975.
Shūhō Yokō, edited by Mori Hikotarō. Publ. by the Kōkoku-ji,
     Yura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, 1938, 1981.
Daisetzu Teitarō Suzuki: Essays in Zen Buddhism I, II & III.
     Rider & Company, London, Vol. I: 1950, 1980. Vol. II: 1953, 1980.
     Vol. III: 1953, 1977.
Daisetzu Teitarō Suzuki: Zen and Japanese Culture.
     Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1970, 1973.
Takahashi Tone: Tozan-ryū: An Innovation of the
     Shakuhachi Tradition from Fuke-shū to Secularism.
     Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
     The Florida State University, 1990. Purchasable at:
Tomimori Kyozan: Myōan Shakuhachi Tsūkai.
     Myōan Kyozan Bōdōyūkai, Tokyo, 1979. 
Tsuge Gen'ichi: 'The History of the Kyotaku.'
     In: Asian Music, Vol. VIII, 2. New York, 1977.
     Available online at:
Royall Tyler, trsl.: Selected Writings of Suzuki Shōsan.
     Cornell University, East Asia Papers, New York, 1977
Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi.
     Shimada Ongaku Shuppan, Tokyo, 3rd impr., 1984.
Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi. Revised and expanded edition.
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2002.
Zengaku Jiten, ed. by Jimbo Nyoten & Andō Bun'ei,
     Shōbō Genzō Chūkai Zensho Kankōkai,
     Tokyo, 1962. Page 1501.

To the front page To the top