Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

An Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular


By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus


The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative



The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax



To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions


Highlighted Illustrations


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names



Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends


Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.



The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview





Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama



 •  INDIA - 1 webpage

 •  CHINA - 2 webpages

 •  JAPAN - 8 webpages

 •  The WEST - 1 webpage





Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern



ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550



1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple


1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise






ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ

     c. 1550 to c. 1640



The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources


1550-1560: The Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City



1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters


1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-sō



1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau"
     and the Final Extinction of All Catholic Believers



c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy






ERA of the KOMUSŌ
     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1640 to 1871



The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752



c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to the
     "Proto-Komusō" Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "Disciple" Kichiku


1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources


1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise


c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources


1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Myōan-ji


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History



1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions



1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book


1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o.





Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of Shakuhachi Narratives



1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-19th CENTURY

     1868-1945



1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection


From 1879 ... 1896-1914 & 1967-1971:
     The Koji ruien Source Collection







2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN

     1945 ...



1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto



1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     Gyō no ongaku: "Music of Asceticism"






3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...



1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages



Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators






Literature / References

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau"
     and the Final Extinction of All Catholic Believers


- FUMI-E

1629:

The practice of fumi-e, 踏み絵 - the forced trampling of Christian images - is introduced and kept in constant national execution and effect turough the year 1858.

The religious authorities of the Tokugawa shōgunate requires suspected Christians to step on images of Jesus Christ or the Virgin Mary in order to prove that they are not members of that outlawed religion.

Fumi-e   Fumi-e

Fumi-e: Jesus Christ & the Virgin Mary


Fumi-e inquisitional ceremony in the early 19th century. Painting by Keiga Kawahara, around 1826

Painting of a 'fumi-e' inquisitional ceremony by Keiga Kawahara, 1786–1860?, a citizen of Nagasaki, created sometime during 1800-1829.

Source: National Library of the Netherlands. Link: geheugenvannederland.nl




寺社奉行 - JISHA BUGYŌ

1635 - The Jisha bugyō, Magistrate of Temples and Shrines, is officially established as a permanent position.
Four Jisha bugyō, "temple & shrines magistrates", are appointed from among the fudai daimyō, and since now they take turns in the position for one-month intervals.



島原 - SHIMABARA no RAN

1637-38 - THE SHIMABARA REBELLION

1637: Christian farmers, warriors, rōnin (masterless samurai) and others revolt against the authorities on the Shimabara Peninsula in Kyūshū.
When the uprising was put down in 1638, tens of thousands had been killed. All surviving rebels, numbering in the thousands, were decapitated.
Christianity was now strictly outlawed in Japan and informers were encouraged.


Folding screen depicting the rebellion at Shimabara

'Shimabara ran-zu byōbu'
"Folding screen depicting the rebellion at Shimabara".
Source: Wikipedia.



1639, July 5: The captain-major of two visiting Portuguese ships at Nagasaki is presented with a copy of a decree which orders the immediate and permanent cessation of all trade between the Portuguese and Japan.

1640, July: A portuguese vessel carrying a specially selected embassy reaches Nagasaki in one last attempt to persuade the shōgun to change his mind.
On August 1, the entire party is arrested and imprisoned.

1640, August 4: 61 of the prisoners are executed on "Martyr's Mount" - 13 native crew members are spared and sent back to the Portuguese colony Macao, to report what has happened.

     Source: C.R. Boxer, 1993, pp. 384-385.



宗門改役 - SHŪMON ARATAME-YAKU
檀家制度 - DANKA SEIDO

In 1640, in direct consequence of the Shimabara Rebellion, the Tokugawa Bakufu orders the socalled Shūmon aratame-yaku, or "officers for examining the religious sects", to be set up.

From this time on, the major sects of Buddhism were made responsible for producing registers of religious affiliation of every Japanese household with one specific Buddhist temple.
The socalled Danka seidō, or "Danka System", in which Japanese households since the Heian Period, 794-1185, had voluntarily been supporting the temples financially, was now reshaped into a most effective instrument with which the government could monitor the population and - first of all - suppress and eliminate the Christian faith and its believers, on a mandatory basis.

Read more about the Danka seidō - and the very important socalled tera-uke 寺請, or "temple certificates", issued annually by the temples - on these pages:

Wikipedia: The Danka system

Even though the later komusō fraternity was, seemingly, to some extent officially recognized by the Tokugawa government in January, 1678, in some capacity as a "semi-religious brotherhood", the komusō "temples" did not play any role in administering and partaking professionally in the Danka System of the Edo Period at all.

Furthermore, the komusō are not known to have performed formal funeral and ancestor commemoration services, nor do the komusō temples appear to have had any cemeteries for the common population - nor themselves! - within their precincts. *
This possibly explains, at least in part, why it did not require much more than a few brush strokes for the new Meiji Government - in October, 1871 - to completely bring an end to the komusō tradition.

     * See f.i. Yamaguchi Masayoshi, 2005, p. 187.



破切支丹 - HA KIRISHITAN

1642: The former warrior, loyal supporter of Tokugawa Ieyasu, and devoted Zen buddhist monk and writer Suzuki Shōsan completes his strongly anti-Christian essay Ha Kirishitan, "Crush Christianity".
Interestingly, Shōsan was an outspoken admirer of Fuke Zenji - see 1648, the Roankyō.



1651: A 'rōnin' revolt led by Yūi Shōsetsu is put down by the shōgunate.



1657-1658: An attempted revolt involving both 'rōnin' and Christians is discovered and the rioters eliminated.



1661:

WANTED: Believers in the Christian Faith - Earn a Reward !!!

キリシタン 禁制 高札 - KIRISHITAN KINSEI no KŌSATSU

"Public Proclamation About the Prohibited Christian Faith"

Reward proclamation, wanted signboard

Reward proclamation, public sign board

Reward proclamation, wording

Reward proclamation, wording


1:
伴天連之訴人 (ばてれん之訴人)   銀三百枚
2:
いるまんの訴人 (入満の訴人)   銀弐百枚
3:
同宿弁宗門訴人   銀五拾枚



Japanese text about the promised rewards:

1: "A person who reports a Catholic Father (shall earn) 300 pieces of silver."

2: "A person who reports a non-ordained Christian monk (shall earn) 200 pieces of silver."

3: "A person who reports some one who speaks about the creed in the same place
= a lay believer (shall earn) 500 pieces of silver."

     Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson, 2018.
     Source: Fujii Joji, 2013, p. 69.




1664: The shōgunate, or bakufu, orders every daimyō to establish in their domain an officer of religious investigation, i.e. either a magistrate of religion (shūmon bugyō) or magistrate of temples and shrines (jisha bugyō).

1665: Registries of religious affiliation are now being produced on a nationwide scale.

The registry's format is finally standardized in 1671 - the system of religious inspection and obligatory temple certification has now become completely consolidated by law and is carried out effectively, on a yearly basis, in all of Japan.



1665: Registries of religious affiliation are now being produced on a nationwide scale.



檀家制度 - DANKA SEIDO

THE DANKA SYSTEM of RELIGIOUS INSPECTION

1671: The registry's format is finally standardized. The system of religious inspection and obligatory temple certification has now become completely consolidated by law and is carried out effectively - and efficiently on a yearly basis, in all of Japan - with expectable exceptions, of course.

Read more on this local webpage: 1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century and the Temple Patron Household System,
- and here: Wikipedia: The Danka System



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