About this Research Project
Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus
The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
& the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
- the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
& the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative
The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax
To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?
Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions
1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
& the Temple Patron Household System
Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
and the Realization of The Non-Dual
- Highlighted Quotations
Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names
Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends
Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.
The Source Collections
The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview
Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
A Chronological Panorama
• INDIA - 1 webpage
• CHINA - 2 webpages
• JAPAN - 8 webpages
• The WEST - 1 webpage
Research Cases of Particular Significance,
Real Importance & Special Concern
ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"
c. 1450 to c. 1550
1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami
1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple
1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls
1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise
ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ
c. 1550 to c. 1640
The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources
1550-1560: The Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries
1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City
1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters
1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
with a Wandering Fuke-sō
1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo
1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
the National "Sects Inspection Bureau"
and the Final Extinction of All Catholic Believers
c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2"
ERA of the KOMUSŌ
"Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"
c. 1640 to 1871
The Early Komusō-related Texts
- from c. 1640 to c. 1752
c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document
1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to the
"Proto-Komusō" Sandō Mugetsu
1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
"The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "Disciple" Kichiku
1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy
The Kyōto/Kansai Sources
1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise
c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji
The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources
1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules
1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678
1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules
c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
& Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Myōan-ji
1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples
1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship
1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum
1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
& Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum
1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
and Early Honkyoku History
1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about Sankyorei-fu,
the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"
1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
The Many Different All Fabricated Versions
1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō
1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book
1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book
1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o.
Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
of Shakuhachi Narratives
1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-19th CENTURY
1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
From 1879 ... 1896-1914 & 1967-1971:
The Koji ruien Source Collection
2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN
1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto
1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
Gyō no ongaku: "Music of Asceticism"
3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST
1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
Written and Published in Western Languages
Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
published in the West / Outside of Japan
including the Internet / WWW
- The Translators
Literature / References
Profile / Bio / CV
Profile / Biography
Born in late January 1950 in Hellerup, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Mixed Icelandic/Danish descent.
Grew up on the island of Amager in Southern Copenhagen.
Studied music (and dancing) from very early childhood and on:
Singing, piano, recorder, bugle, drums, electric bass, acoustic guitar, vibraphone, Indian tabla, percussion - then Japanese shakuhachi,
a little Japanese koto, acoustic bass guitar and – as of lately: Arabic darbuka drum.
First "professional" appearance as a pop/rock drummer on October 3rd, 1965, on the island of Amager, Copenhagen.
1965-68: Specialized language (Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, English, German, French & Latin) & classical music studies in high school.
1968: Formed the symphonic rock band ACHE, who composed and recorded the world’s first genuine rock ballet, "De Homine Urbano" in 1969,
released on LP in 1970 (Philips) & re-released six times since then, internationally.
Second ACHE album, ‘Green Man’, 1971, also reissued six times, worldwide.
1968: Began university studies in Chinese Language and Culture.
BA degree in 1974 - Danish equivalent academic degree: Exam. art.
1974: Began university studies in Japanese Language and Culture.
1977-78: Studies in Japan: Kyōto University foreign special research student, and Myōan-ji, Taizan-ha shakuhachi, with Ozawa Seizan sensei, Yamashina,
Torsten Olafsson's Myōan Temple admission certificate, 1977
1981: BA degree in Japanese/Japanology - Danish equivalent academic degree: Exam. art.
1983: Participates as photo editor during the build-up of the "Japan I Brede" exhibition.
1983: Release of the LP ‘Standing Waves – Zen Shakuhachi Meditations’ (Olafssongs OLP 001/OMC 001).
Geoff Duckworth wrote in his review in "Take no Michi", published by The International Shakuhachi Society (selections):
" - - - Listening to the music one is immediately struck by its starkness in terms of tonal variation, decoration, vibrato etc.,
that one hears in the music of players from the Kinko, or Tozan schools.
If you have developed your shakuhachi listening with the music of Yamaguchi, Reibo, Yamamoto, or Yokoyama, for instance, the music here may be a shock." - - -
" - - - You may, or may not like the music on this record. But I think this would miss the point,
that this record adds to the richness of both one's personal store, and the whole body of shakuhachi music. - - - "
Link to a scanning of the complete review, PDF
1983-1984: Gives a number of public lectures about Japanese culture in Denmark.
1986: Special research in the Tōkyō area. Leisure time shakuhachi studies with Yokoyama Katsuya in Chiba.
1987: MA thesis in Japanology submitted to the University of Copenhagen: ‘Early 17th Century Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology.
The Kaidō honsoku. A Komosō’s Fuke Shakuhachi Credo, dated 1628.’ Published by Monty H. Levenson/Tai Hei Shakuhachi, California.
1991-2000: Print Manager, then Serious Music Manager with Warner/Chappell Music Denmark A/S.
1997: On invitation by then International Shakuhachi Society president, the honorable, late Dan E. Mayers, Esq., Torsten writes an introductory essay to the
‘Kaidō honsoku’ thesis.
2001: ‘Standing Waves’ is re-released on CD by Fønix Musik, Denmark (Fønix Musik CD FM 1183).
2003: The ‘Kaidō honsoku’ thesis together with the introductory essay is printed and published internationally by Monty H. Levenson/Tai Hei Shakuhachi,
Willits, California, USA.
2003: Website about Fuke/Zen Shakuhachi research is launched, now c/o www.torstenolafsson.dk.
2005: Introductory essay about the ‘Kaidō honsoku’ thesis is published by the ISS, in Annals vol. 2.
The editor, the late president of the International Shakuhachi Society, Mr. Dan E. Mayers, Esq., wrote in his introduction to the article:
"Torsten Olafsson taught himself, unaided, to read ancient Japanese in order to complete the following thesis: an astonishing scholarly feat.
The conclusions of the thesis are not widely accepted by Japanese scholars but are interesting and challenging,
throwing new light on an area in which Japanese scholarship has tended to become all too formal.
Those wishing further scholarly enlightenment should consult the original thesis, of which this is a very brief and incomplete summary.
Only through study of the original thesis can a full appreciation be obtained of the scholarship involved. The Editor"
2008: The late Prof. Tsukitani Tsuneko concluded in her article in the book “The Ashgate Research Companion to Japanese Music”:
"The body of shakuhachi researchers in Japan is relatively small; names that recur in the bibliography include Kamisangō, Tsukitani/Tukitani,
Seyama and Simura/Shimura.
It is regrettable that the most conspicuous work is being produced not in Japan but by scholars abroad. (See the works by Fritsch, Gutzwiller, Keister, Lee, Olafsson.)"
2009: Becomes a board member and graphics editor of Dansk-Japansk Selskab.
2009: Danish language website established: www.shakuhachi.dk.
2011: English language shakuhachi website is assigned its own separate URL under the name www.zen-shakuhachi.dk.
Title: The "Zen Shakuhachi Reality Research Web Pages".
Many structural expansions and numerous updates following till this day.
2011, January: Special PowerPoint-supported shakuhachi lecture at Ordrupgaard, Charlottenlund.
2017, June: The Museum at the Royal Castle Amalienborg in central Copenhagen presents the exhibition "Japan i Kongehuset" and Torsten O. plays the shakuhachi during the reception.
The important guests of honour in the audience are the exhibition's two protectors, His Imperial Highness Crown Prince Naruhito of Japan and His Royal Highness Prince Frederik of Denmark.
2017, July: Torsten O. presents a comprehensive exhibition at the European Shakuhachi Society's Summer School in Vejle with c. 80 color posters about shakuhachi history and ascetic ideology.
2017, December: Torsten O. accompanies two Japanese silent movies at Cinemateket in Copenhagen and talks about the shakuhachi in between the two performances.
2018, juni: Torsten O. plays the shakuhachi and tells about the ascetic tradition on the outdoor arena of Lillerød Kirke in Allerød.
2019, February: Torsten O. presents his new updated version of his PowerPoint-, video-, and audio supported lecture/mini concert: "The Flute with no Holes – Zen & the Sound of Bamboo". Venue: Elsinore Library/Helsingør Bibliotek at Kulturværftet overlooking the harbour and Kronborg Castle.
Torsten Olafsson has contributed as a versatile studio musician to more than 40 Danish music albums;
as a professional graphic artist created more than 60 music album cover designs; transcribed, music engraved, typeset and layouted well over
1.300 mostly Danish pop, rock, jazz, folk & instrumental guitar music pieces and, since a. 1980, in his capacity as music editor and publishing company music editor
and print manager, produced several hundred sheet music and music book titles.
Torsten is currently – beside his various shakuhachi activities - working closely with his younger brother, internationally renowned acoustic & electric guitarist
Finn Olafsson, OIafssongs Music Publishers, Denmark, as a concert & studio recording musician, music editor, graphics designer, photographer,
webmaster - as well as performing as a lecturer on Japanese shakuhachi history, music & ideology.