禅尺八 真理研究 ホームページ

The Zen Shakuhachi Truth Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi History & Ideology in Particular

Torsten Olafsson • 無穴笛オーラフソン トーステンデンマーク • Denmark



About this Research Project

Realizations & Conclusions

Highlighted Pictures

Highlighted Quotations

Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama:

 •  India

 •  China

 •  Japan

 •  The West

To be - or not to be:
     a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?

Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

The Source Collections

The Written Sources

1470?: The Kyōgen Play Rakuami

1505: Kōrin's Shakuhachi Essay

1512: The Taigenshō Music Treatise

The Komosō & Fuke-komosō Sources

1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Evidence

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Thesis

1640s?: The Butsu-gen Evidence

1646: Isshi Bunshu's Letter
     to the Komusō Sandō Mugetsu

1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi Legend

The Early Komusō Texts

The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1664: Shichiku shoshinshū

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Ordinance

1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month
     Komusō-ha Oboe Memorandum

1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Ordinance

1694: Engetsu's Honsoku deshi ...

c. 1700?: The Kyotaku Denki myth

1703 & 1705: The Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji Interrelationship

1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Memorandum

1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month
     Ichigetsu-ji & Reihō-ji Memorandum

1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and early 'honkyoku' history

1735: Myōan-ji's Kyorei-zan engi ...

1751: Keichō no okitegaki -
     Existing Reprint Versions

1752: Myōan Temple Restorer Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Fixed Rules for the House

1770: The Kurozawa Kinko Honkyoku Collection

1795: Kyotaku denki kokujikai

1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō



Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info

Wave pattern

Wave - or particle?

Japanese Zen sand garden

Detail of Zen sand garden
at Daisen-in, Daitoku-ji, Kyōto
'Standing waves' ...
Early 16th century
Photo: T.O.

LITERATURE: Complete Bibliography

List of references for all the research web pages

The list is continuously being updated and expanded


Peter Judd Arnesen: The Medieval Japanese Daimyo.
     Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1979

Sonja Arntzen, translator: Ikkyū and the Crazy cloud anthology,
     a Zen poet of Medieval Japan. Foreword by Shūichi Katō.
     University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 1986.

James H. Austín: Zen and the Brain:
     Toward an Understanding of Meditation and Consciousness.
     MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1998.


Helen Josephine Baroni: Ōbaku Zen. The Emergence of the Third
     Sect of Zen in Tokugawa Japan.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2000.

Helen Josephine Baroni: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism.
     The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., New York, 2002.

George M. Beckman: The Making of the Meiji Restoration.
     The Oligarchs and the Constitutional Development of Japan, 1868-1891.
     University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, 1957.

Donald Paul Berger: 'The Shakuhachi and the Kinko Ryū Notation.'
     In: Asian Music, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn, pp. 32-72.
     Texas University Press, 1969.

Steen Bille: Corvetten Galathea's Reise omkring Jorden 1845, 46 og 47. Anden Deel,
     Forlagt af Universitetsboghandler C. A. Reítzel,
     Kjöbenhavn, 1850.

Martina Binnig: Die Honkyoku in der Traditionslinie von Itchōken.
     Zum Repertoire des Shakuhachi-Tempels in Fukuoka/Japan.
     Hochschule für Musik und Tanz Köln. Musikwissenschaft (M.A.)
     Masterarbeit (M.A.) dated and submitted September 28, 2017.

Karen E. Bjerre: 'The Denmark-Japan Society's First 50 Years.'
     In the 50th anniversary book Dansk-Japansk Selskab 1958-2008,
     Dansk-Japansk Selskab, Copenhagen, 2009.

Christopher Blasdel & Kamisangō Yūkō:
     The Shakuhachi. A Manual for Learning.
     Printed Matter Press, Tokyo, 1986, 2008.
     Available at

R.H. Blyth: Zen and Zen Classics, Vol. 1: General Introduction.
     From the Upanishads to Huineng. The Hokuseido Press, Tokyo, 1960.

R.H. Blyth: Zen and Zen Classics, Vol. 4: Mumonkan.
     The Hokuseido Press, Tokyo, 1966, 1974.

Gunhild Borggren, Joan Hornby, Karen Ejersbo-Iversen & Lilli Krarup Edl, editors.
     50th anniversay book published by Dansk-Japansk Selskab, Copenhagen, 2009.

Jørn Borup: Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism. Myōshinji, a living religion.
     Numen Book Series, Brill, Leiden & Boston, 2008.

C.R. Boxer: The Christian Century in Japan, 1549-1650.
     Carcarnet Press Limited, Manchester, 1993.
     First published in 1951 by The University of
     California Press & the Cambridge University Press.

William Bramsen: Japanese Chronological Tables.
     Printed at the "Seishi Bunsha" office, Tokyo, 1880.


John Cage: Silence - Lectures and Writings.
     Wesleyan University Press, Middletown, Connecticutt, 1961, 1971.

Schuyler van R. Cammann: 'Types of Symbols in Chinese Art.'
     In: The American Anthropologist, 'Studies in Chinese Thought',
     Vol. 55, No. 55, Part 2, 1953.

Edmund Capon and William MacQuitty: Princess of Jade.
     Cardinal/Sphere Book, London, 1973.

Steven D. Carter: 'Chats with the Master: Selections from "Kenzai zōdan".'
     In: Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 56, No. 3 (Autumn, 2001), pp. 295-347.

Wing-tsit Chan: The Platform Scripture. The Basic Classic of Zen Buddhism.
     St. John's University Press, New York, 1963, 1975.

Cheng Te-k'un: 'Yin-Yang Wu-hsing and Han Art'.
     In: Harvard Journal of Asian Studies 20, 1-2, 1957.

Hubert S.J. Cieslik: 'The Great Martyrdom in Edo, 1623.'
     In: Monumenta Nipponica X, 1954, pp. 1-44.
     Link to online PDF file:

Martin Collcutt: Five Mountains. The Rinzai Zen Monastic Institution in Medieval Japan.
     Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Massachusetts) and London, 1981.

Michael S.J. Cooper: They Came to Japan. An Anthology of European Reports on Japan, 1543-1640.
     University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, 1965.

Peter Crossley-Holland: 'Non-Western Music.'
     In: The Pelican History of Music I: Ancient Forms to Polyphony: Japan.
     Pelican Books, Harmondsworth, 1975, pp. 60-69.


Peter N. Dale: The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness.
     First publ. by Croom Helm Ltd., 1986.
     Reprinted by Routledge, London, 1988.

Dansk-Japansk Selskab 1958-2008. 50th anniversary celebration book.
     Edited by Gunhild Borggren, Joan Hornby,
     Karen Ejersbo-Iversen & Lilli Krarup Edl.
     Published by Dansk-Japansk Selskab, Copenhagen, 2009.

Kiku Day: Remembrance of Things Past: Creating a repertoire
     for the archaic jinashi shakuhachi.
     PhD from SOAS, University of London, 2010.

Kiku Day: 'The Changes in the Construction of the Jinashi Shakuhachi
     in the late 20th and early 21st Century.'
     In: European Shakuhachi Society Journal, July 1, 2011.

Kiku Day: 'The Effect of Meiji Government Policy on Traditional
     Japanese Music: The case of the shakuhachi.'
     In: 'Nineteenth Century Music Review', Cambridge,
     Volume 10, Issue 02, pp 265-292,
     Cambridge University Press, December 2013.
     Link to online PDF file:

Max Deeg: 'Komusō and "Shakuhachi Zen". From Historical Legitimation
      to the Spiritualisation of a Buddhist denomination in the Edo Period.'
      In: 'Japanese Religions', Vol. 32 (1 & 2): pp. 7-38, 2007.

Bruno Deschênes: Le shakuhachi japonais. Une tradition réinventée.
     Editions L'Harmattan, Paris, 2017.

Bruno Deschênes: 'B Deschenes: Shakuhachi a Reinvented Tradition.'
      English summary of the author's book in French,
      "Le Shakuhachi Japonais", Paris, 2017.
      Link to online PDF version:

Heinrich Dumoulin: A History of Zen Buddhism.
      Pantheon Books, New York, 1963.

Heinrich Dumoulin: Zen Buddhism. A History. Volume 1: India & China.
      Trsl. by James W. Heisig & Paul F. Knitter.
      World Wisdom, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana, 2005.

Heinrich Dumoulin: Zen Buddhism. A History. Volume 2: Japan.
      Trsl. by James W. Heisig & Paul F. Knitter.
      World Wisdom, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana, 2005.


George Elison & Bardwell L. Smith, editors:
      Warlords, Artists, and Commoners.
      Japan in the Sixteenth Century.       University Press of Hawaii, 1981.

Sir Charles Elliot: Japanese Buddhism. London, 1935.
      3rd impression, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1964.


Louis Frédéric: Japan Encyclopedia.
      Harvard University Press, 2005.

Ingrid Fritsch: Die Solo-Honkyoku der Tozan-Schule: Musik für
     Shakuhachi zwischen Tradition und Moderne Japans.
     In: Studien zur traditionellen Musik Japans, Vol. 4,
     Bärenreiter, Kassel, 1979.

Fung Yu-lan: A Short History of Chinese Philosophy.
     The Free Press, New York & Collier-MacMillan Limited,
     London, 1948, 1968.


Gerald Groemer: Street Performers and Society in Urban Japan, 1600-1900:
     The Beggar's Gift (Routledge Studies
     in the Modern History of Asia), January 2016.

R.H. van Gulik: Hsi K'ang and his Poetical Essay on the Lute.
     Sophia University, Tokyo, and The Charles E. Tuttle Company,
     Rutland, Tokyo, 1941, 1969.

Gunsho ruijū, Vol. 28. First published in 1733 by Hanawa Hokiichi.
     Zoku Gunsho Ruijū Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1933.

Andreas Gutzwiller: Die Shakuhachi der Kinko-Schule.
     In the series 'Studien zur traditionellen Musik Japans, Band 5.
     Bärenreiter - Kassel, Basel, London, 1983.

Andreas Gutzwiller: Shakuhachi. Aspects of History, Practice and
     Teaching. PhD thesis, Wesleyan University, USA, 1974.

Andreas Gutzwiller & Gerald Bennett: 'The world of a single sound:
     basic structure of the music of the japanese flute shakuhachi.'
     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 36-60.


Eta Harich-Schneider: A History of Japanese Music.
     Oxford University Press, London, 1973.

William Harmless: Mystics.
     Oxford University Press, 2008.

Hayashi Kenzō: Shōsōin gakki no kenkyū.
     Kazama Shobō, Tōkyō, 1964.

Carolyn Martha Haynes: Parody in the maikyōgen
     and the monogurui kyōgen. Ph.D. thesis.
     Cornell University, USA, 1988.
     Available online at
     Cat. no. AAT 8804579.

Bhikshuni Heng Ch'i, trsl.: The Shurangama Sutra, Vol. III.
     The Buddhist Text Translation Company,
     San Francisco, California, 1980.

Eugen Herrigel: Zen in der Kunst des Bogenschiessens.
     Weller, Konstanz, 1948; Barth, München-Planegg, 1951.
     Published in English in 1953. Published in Japanese in 1955.

Eugen Herrigel: Zen in the Art of Archery.
     United States, 1953.
     Originally published in German in 1948.

Hirai Tomio: Psychophysiology of Zen
     Igaku Shoin, Tokyo, 1978.

Hirai Tomio: Zen and the Mind. Scientific Approach to Zen Practice.
     Japan Publications, Inc., Tokyo, 1978.

Hisamatsu Shin'ichi: Zen and the Fine Arts.
     Kodansha International Ltd.,
     Tokyo, New York & San Fransisco, 1971.

Frank Hoff: Song, Dance and Storytelling: Aspects of the
     Performing Arts in Japan.
     Cornell East Asia Series Number 15, 1978.

Hori Ichirō: 'On the Concept of Hijiri (Holy Man).'
     In: Numen 5, 2 (April), pp. 128-160; Numen 5, 3 (September), pp. 199-232, 1958.

Victor Sōgen Hori: Zen Sand. The Book of Capping Phrases
     for Kōan Practice.
     Compiled, translated, and annotated by Victor Sōgen Hori.      University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2003.

Gregg W. Howard: 'Musico-religious implications of some
     Buddhist views of sound and music in the Sūrangama Sūtra.'
     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 95-101.

Nam-lin Hur: "Death and Social Order in Tokugawa Japan:
     Buddhism, Anti-Christianity, and the Danka System."
     Harvard East Asian Monographs 282, Harvard University Asia
     Center, Cambridge, Mass. & London, 2007, 550 pages.
     Link to an online version of the Introduction:
     "The Rise of Funerary Buddhism in Tokugawa Japan"


Ide Yukio: 'Chūse shakuhachi tsuikō'.
     In: Research reports of the Kōchi University. Humanities.
     Vol. 41, 1-10, Kōchi, 1992-12-27.

Igarashi Bunzō: 'Hottō Kokushi no denki to densetsu ni tsuite.'
     In the shakuhachi periodical 'Ichi-on jō-butsu 8'
     (Novemder), pp. 66-83, Tōkyō, 1984.

Ikeda Juzan shū: Taizan-fu shūi. Tokyo, 1985.

Ikkyū Sōjun: Kyōunshū.
     Facsimile of a late 15th century manuscript.
     Ed. & publ. by Okumura Jūbei, Kyoto, 1966.

Ikkyū Sōjun: Kyōunshū, Kyōunshishū, Jikaishū.
     Rev. & annotated by Nakamura Tamaki.
     Gendai shichōsha, Tokyo, 1976.

Imaeda Aishin: Zenshū no rekishi.
     Shibundō, Tokyo, 1962.

Inaba Issui, Fuke kyōkai, editor:
     Shakuhachi dokushū annai. "A Guide to Shakuhachi Self-study."
     Edited by Inaba Issui, Fuke kyōkai.
     Publ. by Kokureidō shoten, Tokyo, 1915.

Inagaki Ihaku, Izui Seizan & Takahashi Ryochiku, editors:
      Myōan sanjūnana-sei Tanikita Muchiku-shū.
      Taizan-fu shūi. Tanikita Renzō, Kyoto, 1981.

Inoura Yoshinobu & Kawatake Toshio: The Traditional Theatre of Japan.
     Tokyo, 1981.

Izumi Takeo: Paintings of Bamboo Flutes. A History
      and Genealogy of Shakuhachi Performance.
      Translated from Japanese by Philip Flavin.
      Tōhoku University Press, Sendai, 2016.

Izumi Takeo: Take o fuku hitobito.
     Kakareta shakuhachi suisō no rekishi to keifu.
     "Pictures of People who Blow the Bamboo.
     History and Genealogy of People Blowing the Shakuhachi."
     Tōhoku University Publishing Society, Sendai, 2013.


Henry Johnson: The Shakuhachi. Roots and Routes.
      Published by Brill, Leiden & Boston, 2014.


Kazuko Kameda-Mader: 'Shokunin Zukushi-e, "Pictures of People of Various Occupations in Their Workshops" in Early Modern Japan.'
     Hawaii Pacific University, Honolulu, January 2015, 9 pages.
     Publ. online on, link:
     Shokunin Zukushi-e, "Pictures of People of Various Occupations
     in Their Workshops" in Early Modern Japan

Kamisangō Yūkō: "Shakuhachi no rekishi."
     In Hōgaku Taikei Vol. 4, pp. 7-16, Tokyo, 1971.

Kamisangō Yūkō: "Shakuhachi gaku ryakushi:
     suizen no rikai no tame ni". In descriptive notes for
     "Suizen: Chikuho ryū ni miru fuke shakuhachi no keifu."
     Nippon Columbia LP recording KX 7001-3: pp. 9-22, Tokyo, 1974.

K'ao Ku (Chinese periodical of archaeology) 1974, Vol. 1.
     K'ao Ku Publishing Co., Beijing, February 1974.

Engelbert Kaempfer (1651-1716): Kaempfer's Japan : Tokugawa culture observed
     Edited, translated, and annotated by Beatrice M. Bodart-Bailey.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 1999.

Jay Keister: 'The Shakuhachi as Spiritual Tool:
     A Japanese Buddhist Instrument in the West.'
     In: Asian Music, Vol. 35, No. 2. (2004).

Donald Keene: Essays in Idleness. The Tsurezuregusa of Kenkō.
     Columbia University Press, 1998.

Kenneth P. Kirkwood: Renaissance in Japan:
     a cultural survey of the seventeenth century.
     Charles E. Tuttle, 1971.

Kishibe Shigeo: The Traditional Music of Japan.
     Kokusai Bunko Shinkokai, Tokyo, 1966.

Kitahara Ikuya, Masumoto Misao & Matsuda Akira:
     The Encyclopedia of Musical Instruments: The Shakuhachi.
     Ongakusha, Tokyo, 1990.

Kiyū shōran. Comp. by Kitamura Nobuyo (1784-1856), first publ. in 1830.
     Reprint by Seikōkan Shuppanbu, 2 vols., Tokyo, 1933.

Koide Kōhei: Nihon no dentō ongaku.
     Ongaku no tomosha, Tokyo;, 1970.

Koji ruien. Ruien kankōkai, Tokyo, 1896-1914, 51 vols.
     Reduced size reprint ed. by Jingū shichō, Tokyo, 1927-1930.
     Latest edition: Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1967-1971.

Koma no Chikazane: Kyōkunshō.
     Original work completed in 1233. Publ. in 2 vols. by
     Nihon Koten Zenshū Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1928.

Kondō Ichitarō & Charles S. Terry: The Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
     by Hokusai. Heibonsha, Tokyo, 1968.

Kenneth Kraft: Eloquent Zen: Daito and Early Japanese Zen.
     University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1992, 1997.

Kurihara Kōta: Shakuhachi shikō. Chikuyūsha, Tokyo, 1918, 1975.


Mette Laderriere: Danes in Japan 1868-1940: Aspects of Early Danish-Japanese Contacts.
     Akademisk Forlag, Coipenhagen, 1984.

Riley Kelly Lee: 'FU HO U vs. DO RE MI. The Technology of Notation
     Systems and Implications of Change in the
     Shakuhachi Tradition of Japan.'
     In: Asian Music East and Southeast Asia, 19, 2,
     Spring, 1988/Summer, 1988, pp. 71-81.

Riley Kelly Lee: 'Shakuhachi honkyoku notation:
     Written sources in an oral tradition.'
     In: Musica Asiatica Vol. 6, Cambridge University Press,
     Cambridge, England, 1991, pp. 18-35.

Riley Kelly Lee: Yearning for the Bell: A Study of
     Transmission in the Shakuhachi Honkyoku Tradition.
     PhD thesis, University of Sidney, 1993.
     Available online at:

James Legge: The Texts of Taoism.
     Reprinted from Sacred Books of the East, vols. 39 and 40,
     Oxford, 1891. Julian Press, New York, 1961.

Olof G. Lidin: Tanegashima - The Arrival of Europe in Japan.
     Nordic Institue of Asian Studies Monograph Series, No. 90.
     NJAS Press, Copenhagen, 2002.
Link to online PDF file:

Gunnar Jinmei Linder:
     Deconstructing Tradition in Japanese Music. A Study of Shakuhachi,
     Historical Authenticity and Transmission of Tradition.
     PhD dissertation, Department of Oriental Languages,
     Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, 2012.

Gunnar Jinmei Linder: 'Shakuhachi.'
     Online article c/o the author's website. Link:

Dennis Eugene Lishka: Buddhist Wisdom and Its Expression as Art:
     The Dharma of the Zen Master Takuan.
     Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
     University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1976. Purchasable at:
     UMI Dissertation Services - Cat. no.: 7708798.

John Daido Loori: The True Dharma Eye.
      Zen Master Dōgen's Three Hundred Kōans.
      Shambhala Publications, Inc., Boston, 2005.

Lu K'uan Yü: The Secrets of Chinese Meditation.
     Rider & Company, London, 1964, 1975.


Machida Kashō: 'Japanese Music and Drama in the Meiji Period.'
     In Vol. III of Japanese Culture in the Meiji Era, compiled and
     edited by Komiya Toyotaka, translated and adapted by
     Donald Keene & Edward G. Seidensticker.
     Ōbunsha, Tōkyō, 1956, pp. 370-377.

William P. Malm: Japanese Music and Musical Instruments.
     1st edition. Tokyo, New York & London, 1959.

William P. Malm: Traditional Japanese Music and Musical Instruments.
     New edition. Tokyo, New York & London, 2000.

F.A. McClure: The Bamboos. A Fresh Perspective.
     Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 1967.

Matsuda Tomihiro, ed., et al.:
     A Dictionary of Buddhist Terms and Concepts.
     Nichiren Shoshu International Center, Tokyo, 1983.

Daigan Matsunaga & Alicia Matsunaga: Foundation of Japanese
     Buddhism. Vol. I: The Aristocratic Age. Vol. II: The Mass Movement.
     Buddhist Books International, Los Angeles, Tokyo, 1974, 1976.

Christian Theodore Mau:
     Situating the Myōan Kyōkai: a study of Suizen and the Fuke shakuhachi.
     PhD Thesis. SOAS, University of London, 2014.
     Link to online version:

Dan E. Mayers, editor: Annals of the International Shakuhachi Society. Vol. 1.
     Sussex, England: The International Shakuhachi Society, 1990.

Dan E. Mayers, editor: Annals of the International Shakuhachi Society. Vol. 2.
     The International Shakuhachi Society, 2005.

Mikami Sanji: 'Fuke-shū ni tsuite'.
     In: Shigaku zasshi 13, no. 4, 1902, pp. 61-76,
     & Shigaku zasshi 13, no. 5, 1902, pp. 64-82.

Mizukami Tsutomu: Kyochiku no fue. Shakuhachi shikō.
     Tōkyō, 2006.

Michel Mohr: 'Imagining Indian Zen: Tōrei's Commentary on the
     Ta-mo-to-lo ch'an ching and the Rediscovery of
     Early Meditation Techniques during the Tokugawa Era.'
     In: Steven Heine & Dale S. Wright, eds.: Zen Classics.
     Formative Texts in the History of Zen Buddhism.
     Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 2006.

Michel Mohr: 'Zen Buddhism during the Tokugawa period:
     the challenge to go beyond sectarian consciousness.'
     In: Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 21/4, 1994, pp. 341-372.
     Download link:

Miura Jōshin: Keichō kenmonshū (1614).
     "Seen and Heard during the Keichō Period."
     Ed. by Nakamaru Kazunori.      Shin jimbutsu jūraisha, Tōkyō.

H. Müller: 'Einige Notitzen über die Japanische Musik.'
     In: Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Natur- und
     Völkerkunde Ostasiens, I, fasc. 6, Tōkyō, 1876, pp. ?-?.


Yoichi Nagashima: De dansk-japanske kulturelle forbindelser 1600-1873.
      Museum Tusculanums Forlag, Københavns Universitet,
      København, 2003.

Nakatsuka Chikuzen: 'Fuke-shŪ no seiritsu.'
     In Sankyoku No. 188, Tokyo, Nov. 1937, pp. 20-31.

Nakatsuka Chikuzen: Kinko-ryū shakuhachi shikan.
     Nihon Ongaku-sha, Tokyo, 1979.

Hubert Nearman: Shōbogenzō. A Trainee's Translation of
     Great Master Dōgen's Spiritual Masterpiece.
     Shasta Abbey Press, California, USA, 2007.

Joseph Needham: Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. 4.
     Physics and Physical Technology: Sound (Acoustics).
     Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1962.

Nihon Kokugo Dai-jiten. Nihon Dai-jiten Kankōkai, Tokyo, 1973-1975.

Swami Nikhilananda, trsl.: The Māndūkyopanishad with Gaudapāda's 
     Kārikā and Shankara's Commentary.
     Sri Ramakrishna Ashrama, Mysore, 1936, 1968.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke & Gerald Groemer:
     Edo culture, daily life and diversions in urban Japan, 1600-1868.
     University of Hawai'i Press, Honlulu, 1997.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto monogatari.
     Chūō Kōronsha, Tokyo, 1971, 1976.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto no kenkyū.
     Azekura Shobō, Tokyo, 1956.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: Iemoto no kenkyū.
     Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1982.

Nishiyama Matsunosuke: 'Komusō no ura-omote'.
     In: Kikan hōgaku 5, Ongaku no Tomo-sha, Tokyo, 1975, pp. 26-30.

NKBZ 25: Nihon Koten Bungaku Zenshū, Vol 25. Revised and annotated
     by Usuda Jingorō & Shimma Shin'ichi. Tokyo, 1976.


Jūichi Obata and Takehiko Tesima: 'Further Studies on the Acoustical
     Properties of the Japanese wind Instrument, Syakuhati.'
     In: Proceedings of the Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan.
     Tōkyō Imperial University, Faculty of Science, March 1933, pp. 125-134.

Torsten Olafsson: Kaidō Honsoku, 1628: The Komosō's Fuke
     Shakuhachi Credo. On Early 17th Century Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology. Publ. by Tai Hei Shakuhachi, California, 2003.
     Includes a CD-ROM with the author's complete M.A. thesis on
     the same subject, University of Copenhagen, 1987.
     Purchasable at

Herman Ooms: Tokugawa Ideology. Early Constructs, 1570-1680.
     Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1985.

Ōno Osamu: 'Hottō Kokushi wa Fuke shakuhachi no so ni arazu ka.'
     In: Yura machi no bunkasai 10 (March), pp. 83-100, Yura, 1983.


Edmond Papinot & Terence Barrow: Historical and geographical dictionary of Japan,
     with an introduction to the new ed. by Terence Barrow.
     Tuttle Publishing, Rutland, Vermont, 1989.
     First edition in English translation by Terence Barrow publ. in 1910.

Edmond Papinot: Dictionnaire japonais-francais des noms principaux de
     l'histoire et de la géographie du Japon suivi de
     17 appendices sur les empereurs, shōgun, nengō,
     sectes bouddhistes, provinces, départements, mesures, etc.
     Hongkong, 1899.

Francis T. Piggott: The Music and Musical Instruments of Japan
     with notes ny T.L. Southgate. London, 1893, 1909, 1969.

Edgar W. Pope: 'The Shakuhachi, the Fuke-shū, and the Scholars : a historical controversy.'
     In: Journal of Hokusei Gakuen Women's Junior College 36, 31-44,
     Hokusei Gakuen University, Sapporo, 2000.
     Download URL:

William N. Porter: The Miscellany of a Japanese Priest.
     Being a Translation of Tsure-zure Gusa.
     Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland, Tokyo, 1914, 1976.


Esperanza Ramirez-Christensen: Emptiness and Temporality.
     Buddhism and Medieval Japanese Poetics.
     Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 2008.

Esperanza Ramirez-Christensen: Murmured Conversations.
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     Stanford University Press, California, 2008.

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     Frem/Det Nordiske Forlag, Ernst Bojesen, Copenhagen, 1903.

Kirsten Refsing & Lita Lundquist: Translating Japanese Texts.
     Museum Tusculanum Press, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 2009.

Martin P. Regan: Concerto for shakuhachi and 21-string koto: A composition, analysis,
     and discussion of issues encountered in cross-cultural
     approaches to music composition. PhD dissertation,
     University of Hawai'i, 2006.

Kurt Reinhard: Chinesische Musik. Erik Rüth Verlag, Eisenach,
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Edwin O. Reischaur & John K. Fairbank: East Asia. The Great Tradition.      A History of East Asian Civilization, Vol. 1.
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Lauren Nagaryu Rubin: The Shakuhachi and the Didjeridu:
     two case studies of historical iconology, performance practice
     and their relation to avian respiration and song.
     Ph.D. Monash University. Faculty of Arts. School of Music – Conservatorium, 2009.
     Download from:


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     Unpublished MA thesis, Wesleyan University, Middletown (Connecticut), 1971.

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William Scott Wilson: The Unfettered Mind. Writings of the Zen master
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Shakuhachi dokushū annai. "A Guide to Shakuhachi Self-study."
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Shibayama Zenkei: A Flower Does Not Talk.
     Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc. 1970, 1975.

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     The Zen Studies Society Press, New York, 2005.

Shōsōin no Gakki (Musical Intruments in the Shōsōin). Edited by
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     Ryōichi & Shiba Sukehiro. Nihon Keizai Shimbun Sha, Tokyo, 1967.

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Laurence Sickman and Alexander Soper: The Art and Architecture of
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Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold: Nippon.
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Werner Speiser: China. Geist und Gesellschaft. Kunst der Welt series.
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     Link to online version: Sacred Texts - Buddhism - Zen

Norman Stanfield: The Kinko-ryū and its San Koten Honkyoku.
     M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1977.

Sarah Renata Strothers:
     Shakuhachi in the United States: Transcending Boundaries and Dichotomies.
     M.A. thesis, Bowling Green State University, Toledo, Ohio, 2010.
     Link to online PDF file:

Suematsu Kenchō: The Genji Monogatari by Murasaki Shikibu.
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     Vol. III: 1953, 1977.

Daisetzu Teitarō Suzuki: Zen and Japanese Culture.
     Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1970, 1973.

Henrik Hjort Sørensen - see Henrik H. Sorensen.


Takahashi Kūzan: Fukeshū-shi. Sono shakuhachi sōhō no gakuri.
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Takahashi Tone: Tozan-ryū: An Innovation of the
     Shakuhachi Tradition from Fuke-shū to Secularism.
     Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis.
     The Florida State University, 1990. Purchasable at:

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Timothy Teyler: Altered States of Awareness.
    Readings from Scientific American Paperback, June, 1972

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Tōgi Masatarō & William Malm: Gagaku. Performing Arts of Japan
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Tokugawa kinreikō Originally compiled and eventually published in 1890 (-1895)
     by the Japanese Ministry of Justice (Shihōshō, 1871-1948)
     Link to all volumes present in the National Diet Library:
National Diet Library, Tokyo: Tokugawa kinreikō, complete collection

Tokugawa kinreikō, Book 5, publ. by Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1932-33.
     Section with Fuke Sect related document on pages 106-116, frames 58-63.
     Link to online version: National Diet Library, Tokyo: Tokugawa kinreikō, Book 5, 1932-33

Tokugawa kinreikō, Book 5, publ. by Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, Tokyo, 1932-33.
     Section with Fuke Sect related document on pages 106-116, frames 61-66.
     Link to online version: National Diet Library, Tokyo: Tokugawa kinreikō, Book 5, 1932-33

Tomimori Kyozan: Myōan Shakuhachi Tsūkai.
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     Monumenta Nipponica 40, 1, 1985, pp. 69-96.

Toyohara Sumiaki: Taigenshō (original dated 1512)
     1933 edition, 4 vols., edited by Masamune Atsuo
     Nihon Koten Zenshu Kankokai, Tokyo, 1933
     The entire 1933 edition may be downloaded
     from this location:
     - Cheng Yu Tung East Asian Library, University of Toronto

Paul Yachita Tsuchihashi: Japanese Chronologicqal Tables
     from 601 to 1872 A.D.
     Sophia University Press, Tokyo, 1952.

Tsuge Gen'ichi: 'The History of the Kyotaku.'
     In: Asian Music, Vol. VIII, 2. New York, 1977.
     Link to online PDF file:

Tsukamoto Kyodō, editor: Kinko techō / Kyoreizan Myōan-ji bunken.
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     "A Study of Classical Shakuhachi Honkyoku."
     M.A. thesis, Osaka University of Fine Arts, 1969.

Tsukitani Tsuneko, Seyama Tōru & Simura Satoshi:
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     Change and Diversification.'
     In: 'Contemporary Music Review', 1994, Vol. 8, Issue 2,
     pp. 103-129. Translated by Riley Kelly Lee.
     Link to free download:

Tsukitani Tsuneko: 'The Shakuhachi and its music.' Pages 145-168
     in: The Ashgate Research Companion to Japanese Music.
     SOAS Musicology Series. 466 pages.
     Publ. by Ashgate Publishing Group, England & USA, 2008.

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     Cornell University, East Asia Papers, New York, 1977.


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     Shimada Ongaku Shuppan, Tokyo, 3rd impr., 1984.

Ueno Katami: Shakuhachi no rekishi. Revised and expanded edition.
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     exhibition of archaeological finds of the People's Republic of
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     A Way of Life, Work and Art in the Far East.
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     Some Principles of its Organization.'
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     Wikipedia. The Free Dictionary (English language:

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     First Edition: UK, 2000. Wikipedia. The Free Dictionary (Japanese language:

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     of the Early Modern Sōtō Zen Institution.'
     Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 36/1, pp. 27–43,
     Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture, Kyoto, 2009.

Wong Wah-Sang: 'The Music of Buddha Nature - Blowing Zen on the Shakuhachi.'
     In: International Journal of Humanities and Social Science,
     Vol. 4, No. 8, June 2014, pp. 64-80.
     Link to online PDF:


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      Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 2001, 28/1-2.
      Link to online PDF file:

Yamaguchi Masayoshi: Shakuhachi-shi gaisetsu.
     Shiryō to tomo ni tadoru shakuhachi no rekishi.
     Shuppan Geijutsu-sha, Tokyo, 2005.

Yamasaki Taikō: Shingon. Japanese Esoteric Buddhism.
     Shambala, Boston & London, 1988.


Zengaku Jiten, ed. by Jinbo Nyoten & Andō Bun'ei,
     Shōbō Genzō Chūkai Zensho Kankōkai,
     Tokyo, 1962.

Juzhong Zhang, Garman Harbottle, Changsui Wang & Zhaochen Kong:
     'Oldest playable musical instruments found at Jiahu early Neolithic
     site in China.'
     In: NATURE, Vol. 401, Num. 6755, pp. 366-368, 23 September 1999.

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