Shakuhachi



「禅尺八」歴史的証拠 研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Historical Evidence Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study and Substantiation of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi Historical Chronology,
Terminology & Etymology of Concepts, Ideology, Iconology & Practices in Particular


By Torsten Mukuteki Olafsson • トーステン 無穴笛 オーラフソンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

Sitemap - All Menu Items List

Newly Added Extra Web Page Menus


About this Research Project

Preliminary Realizations & Conclusions


The Chinese Ch'an Monk P'u-k'o, the Komosō Beggars
     & the Imperialistic Catholic Christian Intruders
     - the Rōnin Samurai, the Fuke-Komosō, the Komusō
     & the Kyōto Myōan Temple - an Unbiased Narrative


The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū Legend Fabrication Hoax


To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Highlighted Illustrations


1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century in Japan
     & the Temple Patron Household System


Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations


Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names


Various Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     about 'Komusō', 'Fuke-shū', 'Suizen' et cetera



The Source Collections

The Japanese Written Sources - An Overview






Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama



 •  INDIA - 1 web page

 •  CHINA - 2 web pages

 •  JAPAN - 8 web pages

 •  The WEST - 1 web page






Research Cases of Particular Significance,
     Real Importance & Special Concern



ERA of the KOMOSŌ - The "Mat Monks"

     c. 1450 to c. 1550



1470s?: The Dance-kyōgen Play Rakuami

1474: Tōyō Eichō and Ikkyū Sōjun at the
     Inauguration of the Rebuilt Daitoku Temple, Kyōto


1494 & 1501: Two Enchanting Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls


1512: The Taigenshō Court Music Treatise






ERA of the FUKE-SŌ / FUKE-KOMOSŌ

     c. 1550 to c. 1628?



The Komosō & Fuke-sō / Fuke-komosō Sources


1550-1560: The Early Setsuyō-shū Dictionaries


1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Short Story Book:
     The Fuke-komosō in Hachiō-ji, West of Edo City


1621-1625: The Neo-Confucian Scholar Hayashi Razan
     on the Shakuhachi, Komosō and Related Matters


1623: Anrakuan Sakuden's Encounter
     with a Wandering Fuke-komosō


1627-1629: Takuan Sōhō, the Purple Robe Affair, the
     Concept of 'Mu-shin Mu-nen' and the Myōan sōsō-shū


1628: The Kaidō honsoku Fuke-komosō Credo






ERA of the KOMUSŌ
     "Monks of the Non-Dual & None-ness"

     c. 1628? to 1871



The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1628? to c. 1750



1628?: A "Fuke Shakuhachi" related Murder Case
     in the Province of Tosa on the Island of Shikoku?


1637-1640: The Shimabara Uprising on Kyūshū,
     the National "Sects Inspection Bureau", and the
     Efficient Extinction of Catholic Christian Believers


c. 1640?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 2" Copy

1640?: Is a Very Early "Komusō Temple" built
     in Nagasaki on the Island of Kyūshū?


c. 1640?: The Strange Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter to a
     "Proto-Komusō" named Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi / Kakushin Legend:
     "The Four Buddhist Laymen" & the "disciple" Kichiku


1650s?: The Kaidō honsoku "Version 3" Copy


The Kyōto/Kansai Sources


1659?: A Falsely Dated Myōan-ji Document Revealed

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

c, 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Fairy Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji



The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources


1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules


1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules



c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i - Evidence of Kyōto Myōan-ji


1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples


1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship



1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum


1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum



1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early 'Honkyoku' History



1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Administrator
     Kandō Ichiyū's Letter about 'Sankyorei-fu',
     the "Three Non-Dual Spirit Music Pieces"



1751: The Keichō 19/1614 Komusō Certificate
     The Many Different All Fabricated Versions



1752: Kyōto Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu
     Ryōgen's 23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō



1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book


1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō a.o. texts


The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia
     on 'Komosō' & 'Shakuhachi'







Post-Edo & Post-WW2 Period History Sources & Matters
     The Re-Writing & Re-Falsification
     of "Fuke Shakuhachi" Narratives



1 - MEIJI PERIOD till the mid-20th CENTURY

     1868-1945



1871? (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection



From 1879 ... 1896-1914:
     The Koji ruien Historical Encyclopedia



1890: Higuchi Taizan - Teaching, the "Myōan Society",
     and the Taizan-ha Tradition of Shakuhachi Asceticism



1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Article
     'Fuke-shū ni tsuite', "About the Fuke Sect"


Early 20th Century Historians & Musicians, Japan:
     Kurihara Kōta, Uramoto Setchō,
     Nakatsuka Chikuzen, Tanikita Mujiku,
     Tomimori Kyozan, Ikeda Jūzan a.o.



1931-1932: Tokugawa kinreikō - A Source Collection
     of Tokugawa Period Prohibition Laws







2 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: JAPAN

     1945 ...



1950: "The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect"
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in SE Kyōto


1950s: Yasuda Tenzan, Hirazumi Taizan & 'Suizen'

1960: Uramoto Setchō's Essay about
     'Gyō no ongaku': "Music of Asceticism"



Shakuhachi Historianship in Japan Today?:
     The "Traditionalists" and the "Truth Tellers"



The Legacy of the Late Myōan Taizan-ha Teachers
     Yoshimura Fuan Sōshin & Ozawa Seizan







3 - POST-WW2 till TODAY: The WEST

     1945 ...



1945 ... : Some Early Post-WW2 Shakuhachi Narratives
     Written and Published in Western Languages


Translations of Shakuhachi Source Texts
     published in the West / Outside of Japan
     including the Internet / WWW
      - The Translators







Literature / References

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


c. 1665-1675?: The Kyotaku denki Original Text, 1795/1981 ed.,
     the Kyotaku denki kokujikai Illustrations,
     and Tsuge Gen'ichi's 1977 Translation

The KYOTAKU DENKI TEXT in the KYOTAKU DENKI KOKUJIKAI EDITION of 1795,
edited and publicized in Kyōto by YAMAMOTO MORIHIDE, late 18th century.

Acc. to the very opening paragraph of the Kyotaku denki, the author and tale teller was a certain 'Ton'ō', 遁翁, who was, allegedly, a monk active during the Kan'ei Periode, 1624-1644.

But we know of no existing biographical data in existence regarding any such "historical personality", whatsoever.

There is, however, very little, if anything, in the text of the Kyotaku denki that indicates it was thought out and saved to paper by any class of ordained Buddhist monk.

Much more likely, the text would actually have been produced by one or more sufficiently learned masterless samurai, socalled 'rōnin', who attempted to organize the first early, mid-17th century komusō lay beggar monks in the area in and around Kyōto.
In any case, Kyotaku denki was indeed, eventually, published in Kyōto, in 1795.

It is important to note, that of all the numerous Chinese and Japanese individuals mentioned by "name" in Kyotaku denki, only three of those - perhaps even only two? - are known to have ever lived, namely:

The 13th century Buddhist monk Shinchi Kakushin, 1207-1298, and the samurai army leader Kusunoki Masakatsu, second half of the 14th century.

One should actually question whether Fuke Zenji, 9th century, was ever a real "living human being" ...

Kyotaku denki is mentioned, quoted, and praised, over and over again.
But probably only few know how many non-truths and "impossibilities" are actually contained and expressed in the text.

Here follows the reproduction of the Kyotaku denki text in the important, by now very rare 1981 publication edited by Kowata Suigetsu, 1901-1983, on pages 13 through 24:


Kyotaku denki 1981 Edition page 13

Kyotaku denki 1981 Edition page 14

Kyotaku denki 1981 Edition page 15

Kyotaku denki 1981 Edition page 16

Kyotaku denki 1981 Edition page 17

Kyotaku denki 1981 Edition page 18

Kyotaku denki 1981 Edition page 19

Kyotaku denki 1981 Edition page 20

Kyotaku denki 1981 Edition page 21

Kyotaku denki 1981 Edition page 22

Kyotaku denki 1981 Edition page 23

Kyotaku denki 1981 Edition page 24

The 'Kyotaku denki' in Kowata Suigetsu's 1981 edition, pp. 13-24



The ILLUSTRATIONS in the KYOTAKU DENKI KOKUJIKAI, Kowata Suigetsu Edition, 1795/1981

Kyotaku denki kokujikai illustration pp. 70-71

'Kyotaku denki kokujikai', 1795:
Here, the illustrator shows us how, supposedly, Fuke's walking in the streets while ringing his beggar's bell inspired a never having existed "Chang Po", Jap.: 'Chō Haku',
to create the solo flute piece 'Kyorei'.


Kyotaku denki kokujikai illustration pp. 78-79

'Kyotaku denki kokujikai', 1795:
The picture shows Shinchi Kakushin on his way in an ocean going sailboat to study
Zen Buddhism in China, mid-13th century.


Kyotaku denki kokujikai illustration pp. 86-87

'Kyotaku denki kokujikai', 1795:
Truly so, Kakushin returned from China, in 1254 - here approaching land
near Hakata on Kyūshū.
Interestingly, Hakata is the hometown of the sub "temple" of Kyōto Myōan-ji
named Itchōken, a small provincial ascetic shakuhachi center that
was actually only established there late in the 17th centuiry, at the earliest.


Kyotaku denki kokujikai illustration pp. 92-93

'Kyotaku denki kokujikai', 1795:
This is the moment when Shinchi Kakushin presents his Japanese student, the legendary 'Kichiku', with the flute that he supposedly brought with him back from China
in 1254 - that is: certainly only according to the legend!


Kyotaku denki kokujikai illustration pp. 100-101

'Kyotaku denki kokujikai', 1795:
This is when, relates the legend, Kichiku receives the solo piece 'Mukaiji' in a dream
- later having his master Kakushin give the tune that title ...


Kyotaku denki kokujikai illustration pp. 112-113

'Kyotaku denki kokujikai', 1795:
In this scene, the legendary ascetic flute practice transmitter named 'Kyōfū' first meets the 14th century samurai general Kusunoki Masakatsu who is known, in real life, to have lost his last, decisive battle in 1399.

Masakatsu then simply having disappeared, the mid-17th century komusō conspirators could therefore "easily adopt" him into their growing shakuhachi player movement
and beggar monk ranks:
In the Kyotaku denki, Masakatsu was given the new name 'Kyo-mu', 虚無, thus honoring him as the very first albeit "pseudo-historical" 'komusō' of samurai heritage, 虚無僧
- that is, of course: only legendarily.

And, as acc. to Wikipedia Masakatsu died already on January 31, 1400, he would have had very limited time to wander and spread any ascetic shakuhachi gospel.


Kyotaku denki kokujikai illustration pp. 120-121

'Kyotaku denki kokujikai', 1795:
In this concluding illustration we are expected to appreciate Kyōfū sending his disciple Kyomu off on pilgrimage along the 'Tōkaidō' Eastern Coastal Highway.

Kyomu is shown dressed and equipped in a way that would have been completely unthinkable around the year 1400, and even afterwards:
The thick "root-end 'shakuhachi' flute only appeared late in the 17th century.
The 'tengai' braided basket hat only reached that shape and design towards the end
of the 18th century.
The long samurai sword was never to be carried by the wandering, mendicant 'komusō', who were only allowed to bring along with him a short dagger for protection and for practical purposes.
Less than a handfuld of early 17th century pictures of 'Fuke-komosō' are seen to show flute players with shallow basket hats and long swords!

Anyhow, summing up: There were not at all and in no way any 'komusō' in action until past the middle years of the 1600s. And highly reputed historical figures like both Fuke, Shinchi Kakushin and Kusunoki Masakatsu were simply taken hostages in order to glorify a faked 'komusō' origin and fully fabricated early, pre-Edo Period "ascetic samurai shakuhachi history".



TSUGE GEN'ICHI's 1977 TRANSLATION of the KYOTAKU DENKI SECTION of the KYOTAKU DENKI KOKUJIKAI

This translation of the Kyotaku denki kokujikai, 1795, was printed in the N. American music magazine Asian Music in 1977.
On this web page, however, both Tsuge Gen'ichi's introduction, his notes and comments, and the handwritten kanbun/Chinese text have been left out.
Do go to the Asian Music website or to JStor to purchase the full article.

It must be noted, by the way, that Tsuge Gen'ichi appears to have translated the Japanese language version of Kyotaku denki, i.e. the Kyotaku denki kokujikai, not the older Chinese language, or 'kanbun', version of the document.

Kyotaku denki Tsuge translation p. 1

Kyotaku denki Tsuge translation p. 2

Kyotaku denki Tsuge translation p. 3

Kyotaku denki Tsuge translation p. 4

Kyotaku denki Tsuge translation p. 5




Link to Yamaguchi Raimei's Japanese, 'kun'yomi', version of Kyotaku denki text:
Yamaguchi Raimei: 'Kyotaku denki' text




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