「禅尺八」現実研究   ホームページ

The "Zen Shakuhachi" Reality Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi History, Ideology & Practices in Particular

Torsten Olafsson • 無穴笛オーラフソン トーステンデンマーク • Denmark



About this Research Project

Realizations & Conclusions

The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
     Fuke-shū History Fabrication Scam

To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?

Highlighted Illustrations

Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
     regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.

Miscell. Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century
     and the Temple Patron Household System

Fuke Zenji, Komosō, the Catholic Invasion,
     Rōnin Samurai, Komusō and Kyōto Myōan-ji
     - a Factual & Unbiased Chronology

Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
     and the Realization of The Non-Dual
     - Highlighted Quotations

Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
     Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names

Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama:

 •  India

 •  China

 •  Japan

 •  The West

The Source Collections

The Written Sources

Research Cases of Special Significance and Interest:

c. 1470?: The Kyōgen Play Rakuami

1494 & 1501: Two Unique Muromachi Period
     Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls

1505: Kōrin's Shakuhachi Essay

1512: The Taigenshō Music Treatise

The Komosō & Fuke-komosō Sources

1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Story Book

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Document

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Thesis

The Early Komusō-related Texts
     - from c. 1640 to c. 1752

1640s?: The Butsu-gen Komusō Document

1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter
     to the Komusō Sandō Mugetsu

1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi/Kakushin Legend

The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise

1680s?: The Kyotaku Denki Tale:
     Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji

The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
     Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678

1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules

c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
     & Jinrin kinmō zu-i Myōan-ji Evidence

1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples

1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship

1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
     Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
     & Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum

1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and Early Honkyoku History

1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
     Kandō Ichiyū's Essay about Sankyorei-fu,
     the "Three Non-Dual ("Empty")
     Spirit Music Pieces"

1751: The Keichō no okitegaki Fabrication
     The Many Existing Different Versions

1752: Myōan-ji Restorer Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō

1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book

1795 & 1816: Two Original Komusō
     "Fuke Temple" Lists

1812 - A Literary Curiosity: "Two Komusō"
     - a Shakuhachi-inspired Story Book

1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō: Hitori mondō a.o.

1830: The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia

1848: The Fuke Monk Affair Government

1871: The Abolition of the Komusō Fraternity
     and of the Practice of Religious Begging

1950: The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect
     Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in Kyōto

Noteworthy Early Post-Edo Period
     Source Examples - Commented Links:

1871 (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
     Source Collection

1890-1895 & 1930-1932: The Tokugawa kinrei-kō
     Prohibition Law Source Collection

1892: Suzuki Jisuke a.k.a. Higuchi Taizan's
     Shakuhachi shian Study Book

1894-1912: The Gunsho ruijū Source Collection

1896-1914 & 1967-1971: The Koji ruien
     Source Collection

1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Essay
     About "Fuke Sect"-related Matters

1915: The Shakuhachi dokushū annai
     Self-study Book

1918 & 1975: Kurihara Kōta's Investigations
     Into Shakuhachi History

1936-39 & 1979: The Legacy of Pioneer
     Shakuhachi Historian Nakatsuka Chikuzen

1899 till today: Translations of Source Texts
     in Western Shakuhachi-related Publications
     including the Internet/WWW



Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info

The Early Komusō-related Texts - from c. 1640 to c. 1752

To be presented in rather more detail and commented further ...

The Old Capital: Kansai/Kyōto Area Related Texts:

          The New Capital: Kantō/Edo/Tōkyō Area Related Texts:

Datable texts:

Possibly created during the 1640s?:
Butsu-gen / Hotoke-goto(ba), "Buddha Words", or: "Buddhist Sayings".
The "Fuke Sect", Fuke-shū, 普化宗, is not mentioned in the document.

          1646: Letter from the Rinzai Zen Abbot Isshi Bunshu/Monju
          (1608-1646) to a komusō named Sandō Mugetsu (no dates).
          The appellation Fuke-shū, 普化宗, is not
          mentioned in the letter.

1664: Music treatise about "strings & bamboo" by Nakamura Sōsan, Kyōto.
Fuke-shū is not mentioned in the treatise.

          1677 (Enpō 5, 6th month): Reihō-ji document of order rules
          with 17 paragraphs.
          Fuke-shū is not mentioned in these order rules.

          1678, January 11 (Enpō 5, 12th month, 18th day): "Memorandum"
          with 3 paragraphs, apparently issued by the so called
          Jisha-bugyō, the shōgun's governmental Temples & Shrines
          Magistrates,addressed to Komusō shoha, 虚無僧諸派,
          "The Various Komusō Factions".
          Fuke-shū is not mentioned in this memorandum.

          1687: Reihō-ji 11 paragraph document: Document is signed
          Fuke Zen-shū sō-honji Reihō-ji. 普化禅宗 惣本寺 鈴法寺,
          "Reihō-ji, Mother Temple of The Entire Fuke Zen Sect".

1694: Myōan-ji document, the oldest reliable known.
Signed Komusō honji, 虚無僧本寺 京都虚霊山 明暗寺, Komusō
mother temple, Kyōto Kyorei-zan, Myōan-ji.
Fuke-shū is not mentioned.

1703 & 1705: Two formal documents regarding and confirming the Myōan-ji c/o Kōkoku-ji "mother-child" temple relationship.
Fuke-shū is not mentioned.

          1722: Reihō-ji ordinance.
          Fuke shūmon, 普化禅宗, is mentioned in the very first paragraph
          in the available reprint version.

          1731: Reihō-ji ordinance.
          Fuke shūmon is mentioned in the very first paragraph.

Probably created no later than a. 1700?:

Kyotaku denki, "Recorded Tradition of the Imitated Bell"
(in Kyotaku denki kokujikai, Kyōto, 1795).
Fuke-shū is not mentioned in the Kyotaku denki itself.

1735: Kyorei-zan engi narabi ni sankyorei-fu ben.
Fuke-shū is not mentioned.

1752 (not 1659!): A Myōan-ji document with 23 paragraphs.
Fuke-shū is not mentioned.

So far Undatable Text (as of March. 2017):
          As late as 1740? (acc. to Yamato Hōmei).
          Keichō no okitegaki (as late as 1740, or, in 1792?).
          Fuke-shū is not mentioned.

To the front page To the top