Shakuhachi



禅尺八 真理研究 ホームページ

The Zen Shakuhachi Truth Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi History & Ideology in Particular

Torsten Olafsson • 無穴笛オーラフソン トーステンデンマーク • Denmark

 



Introduction

About this Research Project

Realizations & Conclusions

Highlighted Pictures

Highlighted Quotations

Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
A Chronological Overview:

 •  India
 •  China
 •  Japan
 •  The West

To be - or not to be:
     a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?


Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

The Source Collections

The Written Sources

1470?: The Kyōgen Play Rakuami

1505: Kōrin's Shakuhachi Essay

1512: The Taigenshō Music Treatise

The Komosō & Fuke-komosō Sources

1614: The Keichō kemmon-shū

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Evidence

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Thesis

1640s?: The Hotoke-gotoba Evidence

1646: Isshi Bunshu's Letter
     to the Komusō Sandō Mugetsu


1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi Legend

The Early Komusō Texts

The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1664: Shichiku shoshinshū

1677: The Empō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Ordinance


1678: The Empō 5, 12th Month
     Komusō-ha Oboe Memorandum


1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Ordinance


1694: Engetsu's Honsoku deshi ...

1703 & 1705: The Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji Interrelationship


1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki

1735: Myōan-ji's Kyorei-zan engi ...

1740?: Keichō no okitegaki -
     Existing Reprint Versions


1795: Kyotaku denki kokujikai

1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō

1848: Bakufu Government Decree
     re-administrating the "Fuke Sect"


1871: Bakufu Government Decree
     bans & dissolves the "Fuke Sect"


1890 ... The Legacy of Higuchi Taizan

1930s: Uramoto Setchō Credo

1970s: Myōan Taizan-ha Thought & Credos

Honkyoku Music History
     Ascetic Shakuhachi Titles


Miyagawa Nyozan's Honkyoku 'Ajikan'

Myōan Taizan-ha Notation

Literature

Links

Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info


1678, January 11: The Komusō-ha Oboe Memorandum

This webpage has been created with very generous contributions from Kishi Kiyokazu, 貴志清一, Japan, and Ronald Nelson, USA, for which I do warmly thank them both.

Go to page bottom for links to Mr. Kishi's comprehensive Japanese language shakuhachi homepage.


*** Latest news as of August 2, 2016:

My own complete English translation of the document can now be found and studied at the bottom of this webpage.


- OBOE

Here you see an annotated reprint of a very important Fuke Shakuhachi related document that is exhibited in copy in the Komusō Room of the Matsudo City Museum in NW Chiba Prefecture.

This is the vicinity in which the memorable "Fuke Sect" temple Ichigetsu-ji was located during the Edo Period after it had been established there at some time during the last quarter of the 17th century.

Enpō 5 Oboe document reprint displayed at Matsudo City Museum in Chiba

- 'Oboe' - Annotated reprint of the socalled "Edict of the Empō Period"
Photo taken by Ronald Nelson in Summer 2014.


This document is generally being regarded, accepted and highly respected as presenting full and reliable evidence of the socalled "Fuke Sect" having been officially recognized and authorized by the "Temples & Shrines Magistrate Department" in Edo - and thus the Tokugawa Bakufu régime - towards the ultimate close of the 5th year of the Empō Period (1673-1681).

Enpō 5 Oboe document reproduction displayed at Matsudo City Museum in Chiba

Click in the photo to enlarge.


The above picture appears to show one existing photographic reproduction of an actual, original Oboe, or "Memorandum", document.
According to the small sign under the picture, it is a treasure of the Myōan Temple in Kyōto.
Both photos were most kindly taken by Ronald Nelson of the International Shakuhachi Society at the Matsudo City Museum in Summer 2014.

In december 2015, my fine friend and longtime serious shakuhachi researcher Kishi Kiyokazu, 貴志清一, in Japan generously offered me the possibility of presenting on my Zen-shakuhachi website here his fine renderings into both classical and modern Japanese of this very important komusō document known as the "Enpō 5 Edict" - or, "Memorandum", in Japanese: Oboe, - dated towards the very end of the fifth year of the Enpō Period which lasted from 1673 through 1681.

In the following presentation I have also included Kishi Kiyokazu's own comments in English to the document, its contents and significance, in his own personal opinion and qualified interpretation.

Thank you very much for this fine favour of yours, Kishi-san :-)






一 本寺之 (住職者) 其末寺并本寺之弟子
      仲間 以衆評 撰器量 可相立之
      縦雖有由緒師弟子以相対
      後 住契約并遺状 不可立之
      於末寺住職者 其寺之弟子共相談之上窺
      本寺 可居置事。

一 弟子契約之儀 改其人 慥取証人 可極之
      為背大法追放人等 不可抱置事。
      附 虚無僧之作法 古来定通 従本寺
      弥 念入 急度 可申付事。

一 末寺并弟子中 背法令 仕置時 小科之者
      断本寺 可任指図 大科之族者 達奉行所
      落着可申付之 理不盡之働 仕間敷候事。

右之條〃 堅可相守之 若 於違背之
輩者 可為曲事者也
                                                 太 摂津 判
延宝五丁巳年十二月十八日
                                                 板 石見 判
                                                 小 山城 判

                                 虚無僧諸派
                                 本寺末寺





Paragraph 1 rendered in classical Japanese (yomikudashi) by Kishi Kiyokazu:

一 本寺の住職はその末寺并(ならび)に本寺の弟子仲間衆評を以つて器量を選び、之を相い立てるべし。
縦(たと)い由緒有る師弟子といえども、相対を以つて、後住(ごじゅう)の契約ならびに遺状、これを立てるべからず。
末寺住職においてはその寺の弟子ども相談の上、本寺に窺(うかが)い、居(い)置くべき事。

右の条々、かたくこれを相い守るべし。若し違背の輩においては、曲事(くせごと)たるべきものなり。


Paragraph 1 rendered in modern Japanese by Kishi Kiyokazu:

本寺の住職は本寺に属する末寺や本寺の弟子たちの全員の意見で、住職に適した人物を選んで決めなさい。
たとえ繋がりのある師と弟子の関係であっても、お互いに相談して、あらかじめ次の住職の約束をしたり、住職という地位を譲るという文書を作ったりしてはいけない。
 末寺の住職の決定は、その末寺の弟子たちが相談して、本寺に許しを得てから決めなさい。
 以上の条文をしっかり守りなさい。もしこれに背く者があれば、それは大変よくないこと、すなわち罰せられることになる。


Kishi’ Kiyokazu's comment to Par. 1:

There was a relation between a main temple 本寺(ほんじ)
and the branch temples 末寺(まつじ).
This provision refers to the way in which a chief priest should be selected and appointed.
It admits/confirms the autonomy of the Fuke Sect.

(本寺末寺の住職相続の方式を定めたものです。
普化宗内の自治を認めています。)





Paragraph 2 rendered in classical Japanese (yomikudashi) by Kishi Kiyokazu:

一 弟子契約の儀(ぎ)、その人(にん)を改め、たしかに証人を取り、これを極(き)むるべし。
大法に背むきたる追放人等、抱へ置くべからざる事。付けたり、虚無僧の作法、古来の定め通り、本寺よりいよいよ念入りに、急度(きっと)申し付くべき事。


Paragraph 2 rendered in modern Japanese by Kishi Kiyokazu:

弟子の契約をする時は、その人物の身元を確かめ、証人の保証書をとって決定なければならない。
幕府の法令に背いた追放人などは寺に置いてはいけない。
また、虚無僧の作法は、古来からの定め通り、本寺が注意深く、しっかり管理する事。


Kishi’ Kiyokazu's comment to Par. 2:

This provision states the way to select or permit a disciple.
If he is a criminal, he cannot become a Fuke monk.




Paragraph 3 rendered in classical Japanese (yomikudashi) by Kishi Kiyokazu:

一 末寺ならびに弟子中、法令に背き、仕置きの時、小科の者は本寺にことわり、指図に任すべし。 大科の族(やから)は奉行所に達し落着、之を申し付くべし。
理不尽の働き仕るまじくそうろう事。


Paragraph 3 rendered in modern Japanese by Kishi Kiyokazu:

末寺や本寺の弟子のなかで、幕府の法令を破り罪を決定するとき、罪の軽い者は本寺に知らせてその本寺の判決にしたがいなさい。
罪の重い者は寺社奉行所に伝え、その判決に従いなさい。
道理に合わないような行動は絶対してはいけない。


Kishi’ Kiyokazu's comment to Par. 3:

The punishment of a light crime must be enforced by the Fuke Sect and a heavy crime by the Shogunate magistrate's office.
That is the ordinary way of the Shōgunate.


(④ )

Paragraph "“4”" rendered in classical Japanese (yomikudashi) by Kishi Kiyokazu:

右の条々堅く之を相守るべし。
若(も)し之に違背するに於いては、曲事たるべきものなり。

延宝五年丁巳年十二月十八日

大 摂津 守 御印
板 石見 守 御印
小 山城 守 御印

虚無僧諸派
本寺中
末寺中


Paragraph "“4" rendered” in modern Japanese by Kishi Kiyokazu:

これらの三ヶ条をしっかりまもりなさい。
もし、この法令に違反するときは、重大な罪となる。

    延宝5 丁巳年 12月 18日
        [=1678年 1月 11日]

    大田(おおた) 摂津(せっつ)の守(かみ)
    板倉(いたくら) 石見(いわみ)の守
    小出(こいで) 山城(やましろ)の守

        虚無僧諸派の
        本寺へ
        末寺へ


Kishi Kiyokazu'’s comment to Par. “"4"”:

Ōta, Itakura, and Koide were the supreme officials of the Temple & Shrine Department.
So this document is public and has a binding force.
This document is an utmost important one, because this is the official one.
And from now and that time on Komusō were admitted as Zen priests.

Kishi Kiyokazu, December 2015




ENGLISH TRANSLATION

by Torsten Olafsson as of August 2, 2016


MEMORANDUM

(1-a)
The chief monk of a [or, of the] head temple must be elected and appointed from among the disciples of the highest standard in the sub temples and the head temple(s).

(1-b)
Even if there exists a master-disciple relationship [possibly, between two rōnin komusō?], that must not be allowed any influence on the selection and written appointment of a chief monk.

(1-c)
As for the chief monk of a sub temple he must report to the head temple in case there arises a dispute or a conflict among that temple's disciples.


(2-a)
At the time of accepting (or, contracting with) a [new] disciple, that person's background and identity must be certified and confirmed in formal writing by a [or, by one or more] witness(es) before a final decision [can be settled].

(2-b)
Convicted and banished persons who have acted contrary to the fundamental laws must be arrested and taken prisoners (or, taken into custody].

(2-c)
Even so more, the head temple must definitely and thoroughly so instruct that the etiquette (or, manners) of the Komusô since times of old be ever increasingly observed and respected.


(3-a)
At the time when a sub temple and/or a disciple are to be punished for having acted against the laws, minor offenders are to make a humble plea to the head temple and accept the resulting mandate.

(3-b)
Persons who have committed serious wrongdoing must be handed over to the government magistrates, for their official judgement in the matter.

(3-c)
Outrageous behaviour that is not in accordance with the underlying Principles of the Cosmos [acc. to Neo-Confucianism] is not acceptable [lit., does not serve].


(4-a)
The above paragraphs must be firmly observed and obeyed.

(4-b)
If they are violated that is very unlawful.

(4-c)
Empō 5th, the 'hinoto mi' year, 12th month, 18th day *)
= January 11, 1678, year of the cyclic sign 'hinoto mi' *)

Ōta Settsu no Kami [seal] **)
     Governor Director ['Kami'] of the Settsu Province (SE part of Hyōgo Prefecture
     and the Northern part of Ōsaka Prefecture)


Itakura Iwami no Kami [seal] ***)
     Governor Director ['Kami'] of the Iwami Province (Western part of Shimane Prefecture)

Koide Yamashiro no Kami [seal] ****)
     Governor Director ['Kami'] of the Yamashiro Province (Southern part of Kyōto Prefecture)

(To) All Komusō Factions
Mother Temple[s]
Sub Temple[s]




Preliminary notes:

     *) The cyclic sign 'hinoto mi', 丁巳, is not correct for this date.
The cyclic sign for Empō 5-12-18 should be 'tsuchinoe uma', 戊午!

Direct link to the online Zöllner & Tsuchihashi Year Period and Cyclic Sign Calculator & Generator

    **) Personal name: Ōta Suketsugu, 太田 資次;
in office as Temples & Shrines Magistrate in 1676-1678.

   ***) Personal name: Itakura Shigetane, 板倉 重種;
in office as Temples & Shrines Magistrate in 1677-1680.

  ****) Personal name: Koide ???, 小出 ?
Do note that there was no person with the family name 'Koide' in office in Empō 5!

However, in fact a certain Ogasawara Yamashiro no Kami, 小笠原 山城 守, personal name: Ogasawara Naganori, 小笠原 長矩, was indeed in office as Temples & Shrines Magistrate in 1666-1678.

Source: WikiPedia: Jisha bugyō


A deepening commentary will be added soon ...

Torsten Olafsson
Elsinore, Denmark
August 2nd, 2016






Kishi Kiyokazu

Kishi Kiyokazu


Link to 尺八吹奏研究会HP - The Shakuhachi Performance Research Society HomePage edited by Kishi Kiyokazu

A few selected 2016 updates by Kishi Kiyokazu on his Japanese language shakuhachi home page:

A visit in Matsudo City in NW Chiba Prefecture, and the city museum there

A visit at the Kōkoku-ji Zen temple in Yura, Wakayama

Main Hall of the Kōkoku Temple in Yura, Wakayama Pref., Japan. Photo by Kishi Kiyokazu, 2016

Main Hall of the Kōkoku Temple in Yura, Wakayama Pref., Japan.
Photo by Kishi Kiyokazu, July 2016

A walk around the Kumano Kōdō in S. Wakayama Prefecture

A study of the statue of Kyochiku Ryōen Zenji at the Myōan Temple in Kyōto





An Empō Period shakuhachi-playing mendicant komusō?

Before or after 1690? - perhaps even some time before 1683?:

Komusō in Tohi zumaki

A komusō playing a root-end shakuhachi in a Kyōto street
Detail from the 'Tohi zumaki', 都鄙図巻, "Town & Country Picture Scroll".
A very long and impressive picture scroll painted on silk. By Sumiyoshi Gukei, 1631-1705
Originally a treasure of the Konbu-in in Nara, now exhibited at (link) Tōkyō National Museum

Sumiyoshi Gukei was born and lived in Kyōto until 1683 when he moved to Edo, present day Tōkyō, where he died in 1705.

In: Izumi Takeo, 2013, p. 93.





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