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The Zen Shakuhachi Truth Research Web Pages

Introduction & Critical Guide to the Study of Early Ascetic Shakuhachi History & Ideology in Particular

Torsten Olafsson • 無穴笛オーラフソン トーステンデンマーク • Denmark



About this Research Project

Realizations & Conclusions

Highlighted Pictures

Highlighted Quotations

Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
     A Chronological Panorama:

 •  India

 •  China

 •  Japan

 •  The West

To be - or not to be:
     a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?

Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends

The Source Collections

The Written Sources

1470?: The Kyōgen Play Rakuami

1505: Kōrin's Shakuhachi Essay

1512: The Taigenshō Music Treatise

The Komosō & Fuke-komosō Sources

1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Evidence

1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Thesis

1640s?: The Butsu-gen Evidence

1646: Isshi Bunshu's Letter
     to the Komusō Sandō Mugetsu

1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi Legend

The Early Komusō Texts

The Kyōto/Kansai Sources

The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources

1664: Shichiku shoshinshū

1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Ordinance

1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month
     Komusō-ha Oboe Memorandum

1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Ordinance

1694: Engetsu's Honsoku deshi ...

c. 1700?: The Kyotaku Denki myth

1703 & 1705: The Myōan-ji
     c/o Kōkoku-ji Interrelationship

1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month
     Reihō-ji Memorandum

1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month
     Ichigetsu-ji & Reihō-ji Memorandum

1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
     and early 'honkyoku' history

1735: Myōan-ji's Kyorei-zan engi ...

1751: Keichō no okitegaki -
     Existing Reprint Versions

1752: Myōan Temple Restorer Engetsu Ryōgen's
     23 Fixed Rules for the House

1770: The Kurozawa Kinko Honkyoku Collection

1795: Kyotaku denki kokujikai

1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki

1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō's Hitori mondō



Profile / Bio / CV

Contact Info

1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki



1816 - "Master Ikkan's Notes on the Shakuhachi" by Miyaji Ikkan, 宮地一関, - lived c. 1750-1820?


Miyaji Ikkan became a significant figure in the Ichigetsu-ji circles of shakuhachi playing in Edo following upon Kurosawa Kinko's death in 1771. A complete photographic reproduction of Ikkan Sensei's important literary work Shakuhachi hikki can be studied and appreciated in full at The National Diet Library's website.

In Shakuhachi hikki we also find a complete, annotated Fuke temple registry, a short text about Hottō Kokushi and the four Buddhist laymen, as well as a list of the "old 16 branches" (or, factions) of the Fuke Sect. You may go to frames 13 through 20 of the digitalized book to study the pages in question yourself:
National Diet Library, Japan: Shakuhachi hikki

Miyaji Ikkan presents his list of Fuke Temples in relation to their respective branch sects in a fashion very much like Yamamoto Morihide's, in Kyotaku denki kokujikai:

金先派 - Kinsen-ha: 18 temples
活惣派 - Kassō-ha: 14 temples
梅土派 - Umeji-ha: 9 temples
小菊派 - Kogiku-ha: 10 temples
寄竹派 - Yoritake-ha (Kichiku-ha!): 5 temples
根笹派 - Nezasa-ha: 2 temples
不智派 - Fuchi-ha: 9 temples
Total: 67 temples

Then follows a short text in which Miyaji Ikkan explains how come there came to be [legendarily!] 16 branches of the Fuke Sect:



"It says in a book, that during the reign of Emperor Go-Fukakusa, on the 2nd day of the 8th month in the 6th year of the Kenchō Period [1254], onboard the same ship as Hottō Kokushi there were four Buddhist laymen who came to this country.
The Buddhist laymen Hōfu and Sōjo were men from the Chin Province.
Buddhist layman Kokusa was a man from the Sai Province.
Buddhist layman Risei was a man from the Yū Province.

It also says [in the book] that when the four Buddhist laymen had come to this country they settled to live in the Kōke Hermitage of the Kōkoku Temple, and then they founded [?] our sect.
The four Buddhist laymen each had four disciples. A total of 16 disciples.
They established the True Teaching [of my/our sect]. Therefore they divided [and organized the sect] into 16 branch sects.
Seven factions have been continued, nine factions have become extinct."


古十六派ト云ハ - "The old 16 factions were called:

靳詮 改今ノ金先派 - Kinzen, changed to the pres. Kinsen-ha
宋和 今ノ根笹派 - Sōwa - the present Nezasa-ha
火下 今ノ活惣派 - Kaka - the present Kassō-ha
寄竹 - Yoritake/Kichiku
梅土 - Umeji
小菊 - Kogiku
夏潭 今ノ不智派 - Katan - the present Fuchi-ha

The above 7 branch sects are continued/are still in existence

養沢 - Yōtaku
義文 大櫻トモ - Gibun - also called Dai-ō [?]
司祖 - Tsukasaso/Shiso
短尺 多門トモ - Tanjaku - also called Tamon
野木 - Noki/Nogi
芝隣 酒林トモ - Shirin - also called Sakabayashi
陰巴 - Indomoe/Inpa
雄南 野ノ派トモ - Yūnan - also called No no ha
児派 - Chigo

The above 9 branch sects are extinct/discontinued"

     Trsl. by Torsten Olafsson, 2013.

An almost identical list of 16 branch sects is presented in Koji Ruien Vol. 9, p. 1134:

List of 16 branch sects in Koji Ruien Vol. 9, p. 1134

The headline reads Fuke shūmon okitegaki, 普化宗門掟書 - "Legal Document(s) of the Fuke Sect" [?]
No date is given. I have not yet located a reliable version of the original document.
Here follows a transcript/translation:

火下派 後改活總 - "Kaka-ha - later changed to Kassō
靳詮派 後文字改金先 - Kinzen-ha - later, characters changed to Kinsen
寄竹派 - Kichiku-ha [alt.: Yoritake-ha]
梅土派 - Umeji-ha
夏潭派 後改小菊 - Katan-ha - later changed to Kogiku
司祖派 後改根笹 - Tsukasaso-ha/Shiso-ha - later changed to Nezasa
不智派 - Fuchi-ha
養沢派 在山城國 - Yōtaku-ha - in Yamashiro-guni [present Kyōto-fu]
芝鄰派 在山城國 - Shirin-ha - in Yamashiro-guni [present Kyōto-fu]
義文派 在九州 - Gibun-ha - in Kyūshū
陰巴派 在九州 - Indomoe-ha/Inpa-ha - in Kyūshū
宋和派 在北国 - Sōwa-ha - in Hokkoku [present Nagano & Niigata Prefectures]
雄南派 在石見国 - Yūnan-ha - in Iwami-guni [present Shimane Prefecture]
短尺派 在奥州 - Tanjaku - in Ōshū [Tōhoku Area]
野木派 在尾張国 - Nogi-ha - in Owari-guni [present Aichi Prefecture]
児派 在尾張国 - Chigo-ha - in Owari-guni [present Aichi Prefecture]"

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