About this Research Project
Realizations & Conclusions
The Amazing Fuke Zenji / Fuke Shakuhachi /
Fuke-shū History Fabrication Scam
To be - or not to be: a "Zen Buddhist Priest"?
Wikipedia: Inaccuracies & Misunderstandings
regarding Komusō, Fuke-shū, Suizen etc.
Miscell. Errors, Misconceptions & Loose Ends
1549 ... The Catholic Christian Century
and the Temple Patron Household System
Fuke Zenji, Komosō, the Catholic Invasion,
Rōnin Samurai, Komusō and Kyōto Myōan-ji
- a Factual & Unbiased Chronology
Ascetic Shakuhachi Ideology
and the Realization of The Non-Dual
- Highlighted Quotations
Chronology of Ascetic Shakuhachi
Ideology-related Terms, Concepts & Names
Texts, Quotations & Illustrations
A Chronological Panorama:
• The West
The Source Collections
The Written Sources
Research Cases of Special Significance and Interest:
c. 1470?: The Kyōgen Play Rakuami
1494 & 1501: Two Unique Muromachi Period
Poetry Contest Picture Scrolls
1505: Kōrin's Shakuhachi Essay
1512: The Taigenshō Music Treatise
The Komosō & Fuke-komosō Sources
1614: The Keichō kenmon-shū Story Book
1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Document
1628: The Kaidō Honsoku Thesis
The Early Komusō-related Texts
- from c. 1640 to c. 1752
1640s?: The Butsu-gen Komusō Document
1646: Abbot Isshi Bunshu's Letter
to the Komusō Sandō Mugetsu
1646 ... The Hottō Kokushi/Kakushin Legend
The Kyōto/Kansai Sources
1664: The Shichiku shoshinshū Music Treatise
1680s?: The Kyotaku Denki Tale:
Shinchi Kakushin, Kichiku & Kyōto Myōan-ji
The Edo/Kantō/Tōkyō Sources
1677: The Enpō 5, 6th Month
Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules
1678: The Enpō 5, 12th Month Komusō-ha Oboe
Bakufu Memorandum of January 11th, 1678
1687: The Jōkyō 4, 6th Month
Reihō-ji Komusō Set of Rules
c. 1685-1690: The Yōshū fu-shi
& Jinrin kinmō zu-i Myōan-ji Evidence
1694: Myōan-ji Founder Engetsu Ryōgen's
23 Rules for his Komusō Disciples
1703 & 1705: The Kyōto Myōan-ji
c/o Kōkoku-ji & Myōshin-ji Interrelationship
1722: The Kyōhō 7, 6th Month,
Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum
1730: The Kyōhō 15, 7th Month, Ichigetsu-ji
& Reihō-ji Komusō Memorandum
1732: The Shakuhachi denrai-ki
and Early Honkyoku History
1735: Kyōto Myōan-ji Temple Chief Admin
Kandō Ichiyū's Essay about Sankyorei-fu,
the "Three Non-Dual ("Empty")
Spirit Music Pieces"
1751: The Keichō no okitegaki Fabrication
The Many Existing Different Versions
1752: Myōan-ji Restorer Engetsu Ryōgen's
23 Fixed Rules for the Komusō
1795: The Kyotaku denki kokujikai Source Book
1795 & 1816: Two Original Komusō
"Fuke Temple" Lists
1812 - A Literary Curiosity: "Two Komusō"
- a Shakuhachi-inspired Story Book
1816: Miyaji Ikkan's Shakuhachi hikki Book
1823: Hisamatsu Fūyō: Hitori mondō a.o.
1830: The Kiyū shōran Encyclopedia
1848: The Fuke Monk Affair Government
1871: The Abolition of the Komusō Fraternity
and of the Practice of Religious Begging
1950: The Myōan Temple of the True Fuke Sect
Inauguration at Tōfuku Temple in Kyōto
Noteworthy Early Post-Edo Period
Source Examples - Commented Links:
1871 (1843-44): The Komusō zakki
1890-1895 & 1930-1932: The Tokugawa kinrei-kō
Prohibition Law Source Collection
1892: Suzuki Jisuke a.k.a. Higuchi Taizan's
Shakuhachi shian Study Book
1894-1912: The Gunsho ruijū Source Collection
1896-1914 & 1967-1971: The Koji ruien
1902: Mikami Sanji's Critical Essay
About "Fuke Sect"-related Matters
1915: The Shakuhachi dokushū annai
1918 & 1975: Kurihara Kōta's Investigations
Into Shakuhachi History
1936-39 & 1979: The Legacy of Pioneer
Shakuhachi Historian Nakatsuka Chikuzen
1899 till today: Translations of Source Texts
in Western Shakuhachi-related Publications
including the Internet/WWW
Profile / Bio / CV
1848: The Fuke Monk Affair Government Reprimand & Proclamation
御觸 - FUKE-SŌ no GI ni TSUKE GO-SHOKU
"Proclamation Regarding the Fuke Monk Affair"
1848, Friday January 21 - not December 26th, 1847!
(Kōka 4, 12th month, 26th day)
The Fuke "Sect" is placed under the direct jurisdiction of the Rinzai Sect of Buddhism
The government proclamation of January 21st, 1848
In Yamaguchi, 2005, p. 161
The komusō fraternity is (eventually) put under the direct administration and supposed control of the Rinzai Sect of Japanese Zen Buddhism.
The date of this very important official government document is normally given as 1847, Kōka 4.
However, the date of the 26th day in the 12th month of Kōka 4 did not fall late in 1847,
but is equivalent with January the 21st, 1848, a Friday, according to the Western, Gregorian calendar!
You can verify this fact, yourself, via this very useful calendrical calculator:
According to Kiku Day, Denmark:
" - - - The relationship between the bakufu [the Edo government] and the Fuke sect
worsened, due to difficulties controlling the sect and criminal behaviour on the
part of some monks.
In 1847 a decree from the government stated that the Fuke
sect was subject to the same rules as the Rinzai sect. This revoked the special
privileges granted in Keichō no Okitegaki, which led to frustration among the
komusō monks. The deterioration in the relationship culminated when GENDŌ
Kanmyō, the thirty-third kansu of Myōanji, and MYŌAN Sugyō, also from
Myōanji, were involved in the 'Hamaguri Gomon Rebellion'
in 1864, as advocates for Imperial rule against the Tokugawa Shogunate. Mutual distrust
increased, as did the number of sanctions and investigations of komusō monks. - - - "
Link: Kiku Day article, Cambridge University Press
According to WikiPedia, Germany:
" - - - 1847 wurde die Fuke-shū als eigenständige Schule aufgelöst und ihre Anhänger rechtmäßig der Rinzai-shū unterstellt. - - - "
Link: WikiPedia, Germany: Fuke-shū
According to Stan Richardson, USA:
" - - - In 1847 the Shogun Tokugawa Ideyoshi, after struggling to bring the Fuke-shu under his control, finally abolished the 1614 edict.
He disenfranchised the Fuke-shu and allowed all classes of people to become Komuso. - - - "
Link: Webpage: Ichi-on jobutsu
According to Gunnar Jinmei Linder, thesis p. 130:
" - - - Kurihara remarks that the abuse and mischief of the komusō continued,
and the authorities eventually issued a proclamation that in effect disclaimed the privilegies that the
"Keichō okite-gaki" had brought with it.
In 1847, the central authorities issued an official proclamation to the monks of the Fuke sect, in which it is stated that their activities had
become disorderly and indecent in recent years, that the denomination was a branch of
Rinzai Zen and that the monks should follow the path of a Zen Buddhist monk. It also states
that the sect should not make claims of being a hiding place, but rather that they should
conduct their activities in the same way as monks of other denominations, and receive what
people bestow on them, i.e., not extort alms, receive money for honsoku licenses, or other
worldly activities. - - - "
Link: Gunnar Jinmei Linder doctoral thesis
According th Riley Kelly Lee, thesis ch. 3:
" - - - All of the effort to maintain the official recognition and status of the sect was to be of no avail.
There finally came a time when the benefits to the bakufu were far outweighed by the disadvantages of allowing the Fuke sect to retain its special privileges.
In 1847, the government issued a furegaki (触書, circulated official announcements, frequently posted on public announcement boards throughout the country),
unequivocally stating that the privileges of the Fuke sect,
as stated in the Keichō no okitegaki, were no longer valid and should have never been granted in the first place. The announcement revoked the rule that only those of samurai birth could join the sect.
Since the Fuke sect was under the auspices of the Rinzai sect of Zen Buddhism, which anyone could join regardless of birth, it was argued by the bakufu that the same criteria for membership should apply to the Fuke sect.
Furthermore, the announcement stated that the members of the sect did not require special privileges to exercise their spiritual practices, but they did need to cultivate charity of the heart (Kamisango 1974:18). - - - "
Link: Riley Kelly Lee doctoral thesis